Word of the Day- “mal” – Part 2

Uh…Hi… welcome back….
So…originally I had no plans to make that into 2 posts. But this part ended up being so long that the entire article would have been more than 5000 words. God damn, 5000 words just to explain one word. That sounds so absurd. But then again, mal is not just some word. Mal is like: “I am mal, bitch!” And everyone’s just like “Oh no, there is mal, it’s so tough… no one can explain it.” Well, we’ll see … or should I say mal sehen… uh… no… I probably shouldn’t because we haven’t talked about this yet. But we will :).
So… in the first part we talked about the origins of mal and the somewhat normal mal as in einmal zweimal and so on. If you haven’t read that part, click right here and read it first please:

And now let’s get to what’s actually interesting… the particle mal, the all over the place mal, the “once don’t make no sense” –mal … and we’ll talk about all those combinations like noch mal, schon mal, erst mal and so on… so are you ready? Great.

mal – leisure wear for your sentence

All right. And now let’s move on to what’s actually interesting… the kind of particle mal.
Many people will say that mal is just a shortened version of einmal. I don’t know if that is actually what happened but there is certainly some truth to that. In written German, einmal is way more common and is used in many situation where in spoken people would just say mal. But people use mal in spoken A LOT and I think it really is evolving into a word of its own. And this has an effect on einmal, too. You see, with mal around, einmal now doesn’t have to cover as much meaning as before and is thus slightly shifted as well.
Here is what I mean. The standard opening for a fairytale in German reads like this:

Now, the focus here is not so much that the princess was there exactly one time (einmal) and not 2 times (zweimal). No one thinks “Oh okay… so it was not twice in time….” The focus is that the princess was there at some point in time… which, as you hopefully remember, is what Mal actually means…. a point in time.
So what we see in spoken German is that mal is used for exactly that idea… a point in time. In modern day German, the fairytale would start like this:

And there are actually many real life examples with this very mal. For instance a tourist guide in Berlin is very very likely to say this:

Einmal would mean the same here. But to me it sounds unnecessarily long or over-articulated  and I would NEVER say it. I think einmal is slowly shifting toward the whole “1 time as opposed to 2 times“-idea while mal is used for the situation where it is not about the number but about just a point in time.

If someone said einmal instead, I would think the person wants to emphasize that he or she was there exactly once and I am sure I’m not the only one who feel that way. So the mal here conveys something like… “at some point, doesn’t matter when exactly” and I think it is more a appropriate not to translate it at all… but that’s just me.

Again, using einmal would sound weird to me… a bit like… “why are you stressing the one part so much…. so you wouldn’t wanne go twice?” Same here:

Sure, people will assume that you mean one call. But if you end up doing 2 calls the person can’t really say… “Hey, I agreed to just mal and not twice.” … I mean he or she can, but it would be very awkward.
Here is a similar example that makes it more clear:

Mal really doesn’t mean one call… it just means make calls at one/this point in time.
So … I’ll just say it again. Mal is used in sense of “(at)  one point in time” and einmal increasingly takes on the notion of “1 time as opposed to 2 times”. Here are some more examples:

I find it really hard to translate this mal because I feel like any translation, be it at some point, once or whatever else, would be way too defined. All 3 examples would work without mal and still have the same meaning pretty much. Mal just makes them sound more casual. Like… without mal it is like this guy wearing a tie and having his shirt buttoned up all the way, being strictly about dealing information and the mal-version is the same guy at the after work in a lounge drinking a Martini with 2 buttons open. Maybe that’s why people use mal so much… because it really makes the whole statement sound relaxed and casual.

This effect is also the reason why people use mal incredibly often to soften orders…. not in a restaurant but these everyday command we tell to our friends and coworkers.

All these short sentences are direct orders… and those would sound very blunt and in the face if mal wasn’t there to soften them … really soften them,… you know… giving them this lounge feeling :). Seriously, these things can sound really nice and almost like a question. But when you take out the mal, it sounds like an army commander barking at his platoon.

  • Erzähl, wie dein Urlaub war… you sissy!

These everyday commands softened with mal are INCREDIBLY common in German and I can’t possibly list all examples… sag mal, zeig mal, versuch mal,  guck mal, mach mal… you can hear all of these every day and the list goes on and on. So… mal kind of makes direct commands feel like questions. What’s really fascinating is that mal can also work the other way around… that is, when used in a question, it makes this question sound like a soft command.

It is phrased like a question but the actual meaning is “Give the god damn salt, already.” Now, without the mal it would be not much different. However it would sound a bit more like you really want to inquire whether the person is capable of passing the salt.

This one without the mal would really sound like a question… like you really want to know and the mal makes it clear that it is actually an order. So… you can use this mal when you are talking with friends or coworkers and it will feel very very German. But it is totally out of place when you ask a stranger for the time (we did that in the last century because we didn’t have these portable phone things)

Sure, this could also be understood as if you really asking for capability here. And some funny people in Berlin would actually answer:

  • Ja.

And move on… just to then stop and be like:

  • Ohhh… you actually want to KNOW the time… hahahaha… it is 10:68.

Yep… that would be 11:08… sooooo funny. But anyway, generally the people will understand that you want to know the time when you ask this question. Now, when you insert mal, that sounds like a softened order and that is too much for a stranger.

I think I’ve never heard that and it just feels inappropriate… it might be very subtle… but don’t do it.
So.. let’s do a quick recap. Mal kind of means (at) a/some point in time with the focus being on point in time and not on the exact number. People used it so much that it has evolved into a coloring particle that can make your sentence sound casual, your command soft and your question like a soft command. And now let’s get to the really useful stuff :)

Combinations with mal

Mal is part of quite a number fixed very common combinations. So fixed and so common that for some people don’t even know whether it is one word or 2 and the way they pronounce it really makes you think it is one.
In some phrases, the mal is more the mal of einmal, in others it is the casual-maker but don’t try too hard to explain these combinations. They just evolved and here they are. So… let’s look at some, shall we :)

noch mal

This one is so famous, it even has its own website… what? Oh, no that wasn’t a joke… it really does, here’s the link.
The literal meaning of it would be one more time or once again. But often it is best translated with just again. In that sense you can also say noch einmal.

And just like again, you can use it many times in a row… here is a nice example I found in a review for a remote on Amazon, where you can also see the spelling issue:

  • Beide entsprechenden Knöpfe drücken – dreimaliges Blinken bestätigt Speicherung. Nun nur noch ausprobieren – Geht nicht. also noch mal. Und noch mal. Und noch mal. Und nochmal Bedienungsanleitung und Rezensionen gelesen….
  • Push the respecitive 2 buttons – 3 time blinking confirms succesful saving. All that’s left is trying – doesn’t work. So again. And again. And again. Read again manual and customer reviews…

    (an Amazon review, sorry for the glitch in the audio)

When said the right way, noch mal can also sound annoyed.

But, just like mal,  noch mal doesn’t always carry the idea of one time… heck, it doesn’t even always carry the idea of repetition. Imagine you meet a friend in the street and he or she invites you to see a movie…

So… what does this mean? It doesn’t necessarily mean that you have gone home already before that day and that this time will be going home AGAIN. Also, it doesn’t mean that you have to go home once and not twice.
It means that before you can go to the movie there is another task on your list…. so… you’re almost done with your list for that day but going home is still on it and you will have to do that first. That is what noch expresses… yep, I will do a post on that, too…. And what about the mal… well, this is the casual mal here. It means nothing. You can leave it out and have the same sense. Maybe it adds some notion that you won’t be home for long but honestly… just think of it as the casual-maker.
A brother of noch mal is the one word word… nochmals… but I’ll leave that for the dictionary :)
All right. Moving on.

mal sehen

This one exists in more than one version but the idea is always the same. You can use it as a stand alone statement.

But you can also use it in a real sentence.

One common expression following the same basic idea is this

What? Isn’t this that chicken wrap thing? Well, almost… it is actually dialect for

  • Schauen wir mal.
  • We’ll see /Let’s see.

Does mal translate to anything in these examples? No. Does it make it sound casual? Yes. And also, a one word infinite would be strange :)

nicht mal


For nicht (ein)mal it actually helps to think of mal as one time.. so literally nicht mal is NOT one time… as in 0.75 times :). And that is not so far away from the actual meaning… not even.

Speaking of have… I think I have to mention something about nicht mal ….

  • Ich war nicht mal in Paris.

is NOT just the negative of

  • Ich war mal in Paris.

The combination of nicht mal really feels like not even. So the sentence means:

  • I was not even in Paris, (let alone other cities… if that makes sense in English)

If you want to say the you’ve never been to Paris, that would be:

But that is another story.

Gerade mal

Now, a very similar combination to nicht mal is gerade mal which translates to barely or just (one times).

To make it a little more confusing, gerade mal has a second meaning which is a temporal one which ranges from right now to the immediate future

This is really hard to pin point and honestly, I think this meaning is not the most important one so won’t really need it.
What you will need is this

erst mal

 
This is another one of those combinations that are so common that people tend to write it as one word. Officially 2 words is correct though. Now, I have already written about the word erst in detail (here’s the link) . And the good news is that male doesn’t add much to that except for it’s usual casual vibe.

We could leave out mal here without changing the meaning.
However, the bad news is that I lied… mal can change erst and remove a lot of the notion of first. I mean, it is still there… but only on an abstract level. So what does it mean?
Erst mal often means for now/ for this point in time.

Interestingly, erst mal also works when a time is given. Then, I have no idea how to translate it without having the English version being overly long and stilted.

So... erst mal is somewhere between first and as a first step, if that makes sense.

  • “Wie findest du mein Bild?”
    “Hmmm, is’ schon cool aber irgendwie fehlt noch was.”
    “Ja, ich weiß, aber ich weiß nich’ was. Ich lass’ es erst mal so.”
  • “How do you like my picture?”
    “Hmmm.. it’s pretty cool already but I feel like something is missing.”
    “Yeah, I know, but I don’t know what it is. I’ll leave it like that for now.

     

Wow… in the last example, every German sentence was shorter than the English counterpart… now who would have though that was possible :)
Anyway… there is also a one word version of this… erstmals... and, oh my… the meaning of it is different… horayyyy.
Erstmals means for the first time and it only works in certain contexts which I can not tell more about because I have no idea. It is more of a newspaper word anyway.

schon mal

And finally, the last very very common combination is schon mal. It basically is just a combination of the already-schon and the (at) a point in time – mal but the translation can be quite different.

Are you bored of Paris examples, yet :)?

You can basically take out either schon or ma l and have pretty much the same question but the combination sounds best and is used the most.
And just to make sure… if the answer is negative, the phrasing you need is this:

With the noch implying that you might do it in the future.
Now, there are other meanings of schon mal… it is not ALWAYS ever…. ever is actually just a byproduct of the combination. Imagine you are cooking with friends and you are making pasta. Your friend is in charge of the sauce and keeps cutting vegetables. You get bored would love to do something too, so you ask

So here, schon mal is less already than schon alone would be. Another example… the deed is done and the plates are filled. And then your phone rings. It’s your mom. So you say…

Sure, you could just think of it as already but to me, the vibe is a little different.
Now, finally, lastly, we need to talk about the other meaning of schon mal... yeah… I can hear you all sigh. The thing is, schon can mean already, but it is also a particle that disperses doubt to an extent… kind of like a skeptical yes.  And this can also be the case in the combination with mal. Here are the 2 versions back to back…. I’ll stay at the dinner party…

Is there a difference in pronunciation? No. Can you only now by context? Yes. Is that important for a beginner? Hellllllllllllll no :). Just remember the “normal” schon mal.

Wrap up

So, this was the second part of our analysis of mal. I’m sure it was long and exhausting for you and I am just as sure that we did not cover all there is to say… there are more combinations out there and I also, I didn’t mention that mal can also means times in a mathematical sense.

  • 2 mal 3 macht 4
    Widdewiddewitt
    und Drei macht Neune !
  • Freckles on her nose,
    Diddle diddle dee,
    a girl came riding

Oh… quite some freedom in translation there :)… well, sure seems like the German Pippi Longstocking is an engineer doing math and stuff…. probably building cars, too.
Anyway… to sum up the most important thing… mal, while originally probably just a shortened form of einmal, has evolved into a word of its own. It can mean (at) some point in time with no focus on how many times we are talking about but it has been used so much that often it is just a particle making the sentence sound casual. The most prominent use of this mal are these little commands like guck mal, sag mal, frag mal and so on and so on… and you should definitely try to include that into your own German.
And now… all that’s left is the one mal no one of you expected…. that mal that means … to pee.

Yes, this is not a joke. Any German… any German will understand this. And it is not the worst way announcing that you need to see a bathroom.

  • Ich muss mal.

Kids say it all the time in the car.
All right… so, this was mal the monster. If you have any questions or suggestions or you have others mals that we haven’t talked about yet, just leave me a comment. I am can’t wait to explain more :). I hope you liked it, I’ll see you next time…
oh…
and here is the complete German version of the Pippi Longstocking song. Have fun with your Ohrwurm.

 

for members :)

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Kerstin (@fluentlanguage)

Officially, majorly, beautifully great explanation of mal. Love it. Thank you so much and I’ll definitely share this with my students.

Bill Y.
Bill Y.

Dear Emanuel,

I just wanted to let you know that your site is an enormous help and support with the course I am doing at the Volkshochschule here in Berlin. Your style of writing and the detail you provide work perfectly for me – please keep those blogs coming!

I hope you won’t mind a couple of corrections to the English (you did invite them): I believe that you mean “extent” rather than “extend” and a diner is someone who attends a dinner party.

Many, many thanks.

namenlos

Ich hatte bisher nicht verstanden, wie man ‘mal’ nutzt. Es ist ganz leicht aber. Oder es könnte sein, das die Erklärung hier ist so gut. Danke noch mal! Von jetzt an wird ich sicher mal es nutzen. :)

onlien
onlien

“Ich habe um 3 versucht anzurufen und dann noch (ein)mal um 5.”
First part of the sentence: why can you say that so? I thought it must be either of these two:
– Ich habe um 3 versucht, dich anzurufen (with a comma, in 2 sub clauses)
– Ich habe um 3 anzurufen versucht
With the past participle don’t I have to place it at the very end of the sentence? as in
Ich habe […everything else, finally another verb with zu…] ge…t/en

The Tina Sparkles Experience

Super! Really helpful and well written. Cheers

Anonymous
Anonymous

Vielen Dank für das =]
Ich lese immer ihrem Blog. Um abraço do tamanho do Brasil.

Gordon
Gordon

Thanks, I am really enjoying your blog. I’ve been studying about 6 months now and often this blog answers questions as I am coming across them. I happen to be in Berlin for a few more days, I’ve never been to Germany before and I don’t know when I’ll get a chance again, I thought it might be nice to get some easy german literature, or some literature that has both german and english translations. Do you have any ideas of bookstores where I might find such a resource?
Thanks!

Anonymous
Anonymous

I give German lessons and really appreciate getting new ideas, so I enjoyed reading your article. Very well explained with good examples. Could I just point out a small problem with the following example (about a third of the way through):
Guck mal, dahinten ist ein Star!
Look, there is a star over there!
‘Star’ in German *could* mean a celebrity and *could* be translated as ‘star’, but my first idea was that of the bird ‘der Star’, which is called ‘starling’ and not ‘star’ in English. The English word ‘star’ in the sense of ‘burning mass of gas in space’ would be ‘der Stern’ in German. Sorry to be pernickerty, but this could look like a comical mistranslation, so I thought I would make you aware. Thank you!

William
William

Hello Immanuel. Thanks for the blog. I live in the United States and I am learning German at home. I find the posts very helpful in understanding the mechanics of the language. I have relatives that live in Germany, and the older couple do not speak or write English. I correspond with them in letters written in German. It is my goal to visit them and to speak to them in German. Sometimes the learning is a grind. The levity in your articles makes the learning enjoyable. Vielen Dank. I also read dual language books that make the learning enjoyable. May I suggest to you and your readers a dual language book that is very funny and enjoyable especially those learning this language. The book is: Die schreckliche deutsche Sprache /The Awful German Language (Hardback)(English / German) By (author) Mark Twain. Haben Sie und alle Ihre Leser Glück und gute Gesundheit. (book depository)

William
William

The Bible 978-1-4335-0376-4,
Siddhartha 978-0-486-40437-0,
Selected folktales 978-0-486-42474-3,
Fünf Deutsche Meister Erzählungen, 978-0-486-27619-9,
Vier Erzählungen 0-486-42696-3, Kanadische Eskapaden 098432710x,
The Sorrows of Young Werther ß Goethe 978-0-486-43363-9,
A Christmas Carol 13978-0-9831503-2-9,
Sherlock Holmes 9781936939060

Anonymous
Anonymous

Ooo. Excellent article!

Could you explain to me how “ja” and “aber” are used as particles? It kinda confuses me.

immolatrix
immolatrix

When using “einmal” to mean once, can it also mean “for once,” as in, you never do that, but could you do it now? “Leave me alone for once.” My mother always says no, but “she said yes for once.”

Also, how about “just this once”? “Leave me alone just this once.” “Please say yes just this once.” This is different from “for once,” because “for once” means do it now, with hope that you’ll continue to do it, but not certainty; “just this once” means do it only this one time and then you never have to do it again.

Thanks; I’m really enjoying your posts. I would also like one on the “ja” particle because that really confuses me. Your article on “doch” was so helpful.

Tupinikiwi

Thanks for all these posts, Emanuel. I have a nerdy fascination for grammar that you obviously share. You have a great nose for the subtle twists it can give to the feel of a sentence. Love your blog. Wish I had more time… if I did I’d offer to go through and proofread all the English for you as a way of thanking you. Time, time, time!!!

By the way, the first book I ever read in German was Tintenherz by Cornelia Funke. It’s aimed at 12-year-olds I guess, but I loads of adults love it too. It’s replete with her gorgeous fetish for books, reading, words and how fiction seeps into the reader’s reality. She tends to be a bit repetitive sometimes in her structures and use of vocab, but that’s great for a first book, especially since it weighs in at 566 pages.

Can’t thank you enough. Please keep going!

SFKrystal
SFKrystal

I was on the fence about bookmarking this page, but the German Pippi Longstocking made it a definite win.

Anonymous
Anonymous

Great post! It helps a ton, please keep posting

Maidelberger
Maidelberger

hi! i have been religiously using mal in every command since i read this blog post. but the other day a couple of my german friends told me it sounds kind of funny to use ‘mal’ in the imperative – as though their mother was telling them to do something. I asked how to go around this and one said it’s a lot more common to use ‘sollten’ eg. say ‘du solltest dein handy anmachen’ instead of ‘mach mal dein handy an’ etc. is this the case for most commands? or just some? it sounds like yet another sprachgefühl thing but i figured i’d ask anyway. :) i asked them but they were generally unsure (which is fair since when people ask me about english grammar i am also usually reduced to a quivering confused ball of grammar sadness).

thanks!!

javier
javier

Does the “ruhig” in “Oh… ich muss kurz telefonieren, aber ihr könnt ruhig schon mal essen.” mean quietly? As in “go ahead and quietly eat?” Thanks!

javier
javier

Will do, thanks a lot!

Tim
Tim

Can I say I love you or is it a too inappropriate thing to say to a german person?

I am definitely following this site while studying in Munich and trying to learn german!

Gerardo

5 years learning and speaking German and this is THE only logical and orderly explanation I have been able to get for the use of mal. I actually took notes on it and I’m sure it will help me to communicate better right away. Thank you for sharing.