Word of the Day – “das Wesen”

wesen-meaning-imageHello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day. And if you haven’t had an epiphany lately get ready for one because we’ll have a look at the meaning of

das Wesen

 

Okay… maybe epiphany was a bit too much. But we’ll definitely learn som ecool stuff.  So, if you’e read fairy tales or fantasy novels in German, you probably know that a Wesen is a  creature or being.

  • Superman kämpft gegen ein Wesen aus Energie.
  • Superman fights a creature made from pure energy.
  • Pflanzen sind auch Lebewesen.
  • Plants are living beings too.

  • Der Stadtwald war voller Zauberwesen.
  • The municipal forest was rife with magical beings.
    (this is from a young adult novel I’m working on, by the way)

German also has die Kreatur but this word has a high Frankenstein-factor,
it’s often used if people want to express that a being is miserable or ugly.  Wesen has a high unicorn-factor, it sounds fine, ethereal, a bit more divine.
Now, Wesen has a second meaning and it kind of fits with that ethereal-ness because Wesen is also used in a non-physical sense the core character of something or someone. How something is.. like… at the core. It’s hard to describe it so let’s just look at examples.

  • Maria ist voll auf dem Eso-Trip. Sie liest gerade ein Buch über das Wesen des Wassers. “Das Wesen der Steine” hat sie auch schon gekauft.
  • Maria is going all esoteric. Right now, she’s reading a book about the “nature/essence of water”. She also bought “The nature/soul of stones”
  • Licht und Wärmestrahlung sind wesensgleich.
  • Light and heat radiation are of the same nature.
  • Thomas ist in letzter Zeit so depressiv. Das entspricht eigentlich gar nicht seinem Wesen.
  • Thomas has been so depressed recently. That’s so not his character/nature, usually.

So we have these two uses and they both revolve around being in some way. Now we could go to the related words because there are some really good ones but instead we’ll go somewhere else. To an opera.
Boooooooooooh.
Nah, don’t worry. We won’t go to an opera. We’ll just make a little detour into the past and take a look at to be itself. Because Wesen has a LOT to do with that.

So… have you ever thought about what a crazy mess the verb to be is? Because it is. I mean… come on

  • be, am, is, was, were

Do these look like words that have anything to do with one another? In German it’s not much better

  • sein, bin, ist, sind, war

So what’s up with that. Why are these forms so random.
The solution to this this mystery is that  to be and sein are actually smoothies.
I mean blends. Blends of 3 distinct verbs or roots.
The first one is the Indo European es which simply meant to be. It’s obviously the root for is and ist. But that’s not all. The es-root is also where am and are come from which were eom and eart in Old English. And it’s also the origin of sein and sind. They just lost the initial e.
The second verb or root in the blend goes back to the Indo-Europen bheue. This meant to grow, to come into being and it’s the origin of be, bin and bist. And it’s also the origin of some Romance past forms with f… like French fusse or Spanish fuera or fui.
Last but not least we have the Germanic verb wesan which meant to dwell, to remain, to live at a place. This dwelling-thing was really the core of it for a long time and especially in German it’s still alive in the noun das Anwesen. which today is a big mansion with a park but once it was just a piece of land with a hut.
But slowly people started using the verb also in the broader sense of being. And then and for some reason eventually wesen fell out of use as a verb itself and ended up as what it is today…. the past tense of to be… was, were, war- and of course the German version for been…. gewesen.
So… *es, *bheue and wesan… these are the three ingredients for to be. And because it’s kind of confusing here’s a little overview for German and English mixed them:

to-be-origin
(I have a typo here…. it should be “wart” and not “ward”)

The two languages (and I guess others as well) really tried around for a while and then each made the blend they liked best. There’s no real logic why it’s sein in German and be in English. It’s just how it ended up.  Kind of crazy, isn’t it.

Anyway, now it’s time to get back to our Word of the Day das Wesen.  

We’ve learned that it means creature or being and with all the background we have that makes perfect sense now because wesen actually is a part of  to be. We’ve also learned that another part of to be is the Indo-European root es. What we haven’t said yet is that this es-root is also the root for the Latin form version of to beesse.
And that connection totally shows in the related words.
German has played around with wesen quite a bit before largely dumping the verb. Adding prefixes, making nouns, shifting meanings here and there. Very little of that survived but there are three leftovers in particular that are really super common. The first one is anwesend. German once had anwesen as a normal verb and it meant to be there but only anwesend and the noun die Anwesenheit survived. Literally those mean being there and the being there and best translation are present and presence. And do you know where these come from? From esse… the Latin version of to be.  Tadah. Esse combined with pre is literally being that is right in front of someone.  So present and anwesend are essentially the same thing, just expressed with different roots. Examples

  • Der Chef ist beim Meeting anwesend.
  • The boss is present at the meeting.
  • Ich habe den Brief gestern in Anwesenheit eines Anwalts geöffnet.
  • I opened the letter yesterday in presence of a lawyer.
  • In vielen Bachelorstudiengängen gibt es für die Kurse Anwesendheitspflicht.
  • For many bachelor courses there’s compulsory attendance for the lectures.

Now, just to make sure… presence in sense of having a nice presence is NOT Anwesenheit. That would be Präsenz. Anwesenheit is really the being there.

  • Der Schauspieler hat eine beeindruckende Präsenz.
  • The actor has an impressive presence.

The opposite of  anwesend is, surprise surprise, abwesend… or Abwesenheit  if you need a noun. Literally these are (the) being off/away and the translation is of course… absent or absence. And these are totally Latin. Ab (away) + esse (to be)

  • Ihr könnt so was nicht in meiner Abwesenheit entscheiden.
  • You cannot decide this in my absence.
  • Abwesend stochert Thomas in seinem Kartoffelbrei.
  • Absent-minded Thomas pokes around in his mashed potatoes.

Last but not least there is wesentlich and wesentlich means… drumroll….  essential. Do you have an idea where that co… what am I asking, of course you do :D.   Essential obviously comes from Latin esse, too.

  • Training ist ein wesentlicher Teil des Sprachenlernens.
  • Exercise is an essential part of learning a language.
  • The cases play a non-negligible part in why German comes across so difficult.
  • Die Fälle haben einen nicht unwesentlichen Anteil daran, dass Deutsch so schwierig wirkt.
  • Wir müssen uns auf das Wesentliche konzentrieren.
  • We have to focus on what’s essential.

Now, we should probably mention that wesentlich is NOT a good translation for essentially in most cases…. sometimes im Wesentlichen works but most of the time im Prinzip or im Grunde are the better match.

  • He’s essentially fired.
  • Er ist im Prinzip/quasi gefeuert.

All right.  There are some other wesen-words and I’ll list them in the vocabulary but they’re all left overs of German’s playing around with the verb and are kind of hard to explain. Add they’re not that important so I think we can call it a day here. This was our look at the German Word das Wesen. It means being, creature and something like core character but the real takeaway is that it comes from a verb wesan. Both German and English had it as to dwell but in both languages it gradually became the past tense of the “to be”-smoothie. And maybe that’ll help you remember just what is  been in German. Because many people struggle with that.
It’s gewesen. Kind of like was, only with a ge :)
As always, if you have any questions or suggestions or you have a wesen-word you can’t really make sense of, just leave me a comment.
I hope you liked it and see you next time.

 

** vocab **

gewesen – been
das Wesen – the creature/being, the core character/nature
das Lebewesen – the living being
wesentlich – essential
im wesentlichen – for the most part/(essentially)
im Prinzip, im Grunde – essentially 
abwesend – absent /absent minded 
die Abwesenheit – the absence
anwesend – present (as an adjective, there)
die Anwesenheit – the presence (in the factual sense of being there)
sein Unwesen treiben – do mischief  (probably based on the idea of living = behaving combined with the negative-un)
das Bankenwesen – the banking sector/industry/branch (the suffix -wesen is often used to refer to the entirety of a sector… quite formal though)
wesensgleich – of the same nature

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Monty
Monty
1 month ago

I’ve heard “wesentlich” used in a manner that feels like an intensifier, but this article doesn’t cover that use.

Zb – Mein Einhorn sieht wesentlich besser als dein dummes Pferd aus.

Can you please help clarify the meaning in this context? The translation of “Essentially” doesn’t match the vibe I feel when I hear it in statements like the above because “essentially” is a a synonym for “basically” in English.

Christos
Christos
9 months ago

Came for the -wese am Ende eines Wortes (at C1 saw Messe und Kongresswese) stayed for the entire great article ✌

Anonymous
Anonymous
1 year ago

Hallo. Wie geht s
Wie kann ich auf die Liste von words of the day zugreifen? Wo find ich also alle diese Woerter?
Danke!

James
James
1 year ago

Just to add, with regard to ‘the creature’ depicted at the top of your page, it’s almost but not quite a griffin (or gryphon) – too many heads! One of the more obscure words, I’ve learnt is ‘der Greif’, because its the logo of the Bundesliga team I now support, SC Freiburg. PS. Have just noticed a few other passing references to Heidegger..

James
James
1 year ago

Wow! Now there’s a coincidence. I once learnt German to a decent level (B.2), but now just keep my hand in via a weekly conversation class.and some light reading. Reading a Krimi, I came across ‘das Wesen’, thought it an interesting word and decided to research it. Before I knew it, I was considering the differences between being, living, and existing. I ended up at existentialism, trying to understand Martin Heidegger’s use of das Wesen and Dasein!!! My advice: Don’t go there!!! Although my conversation class tutor was impressed that I’d even attempted to read Heidegger in German! Interesting and stimulating post, Thanks!

Miranda
Miranda
1 year ago

Ich möchte gern mehr über diese Buch wissen, der du schreibst/geschrieben hat?

David nowicki-stephen
David nowicki-stephen
2 years ago

Trying to subscribe but my email address not recognised

Yuppy
Yuppy
2 years ago

Once upon a time, a teacher was talking to his student.

Teacher : Wir sind Schöne Wesen. Wir sind Lebenwesen aus lauter schöne Sachen.
Sassy kid : Sind Sie Sich da ganz sicher? Ich werde das Fenster für Ihnen öffnen. Erblicken! Die Zauberwesen.
Teacher: was zum Teufel!
Unicorn : Macht dir keine Sorgen! Ich bin anwesend.
Teacher: So? Deine Anwesenheit ist im Wesentlichen/Prinzip/Grunde nutzlos.
Unicorn : Ich stecke es in dich.
Teacher : Warteeeen! …. Tut mir leid.
Unicorn : Deine Abwesenheit würde besser sind
Teacher: aber unsere Schule hat Anwesendheitspflicht
Unicorn: Steckeee
Sassy kid: Er ist immer abwesend. Das ist ein wesentlicher Teil von Ihm.
Unicorn: Ich werde dann aufhören. Wir sind wesensgleich. Das Bildungswesen unserer Gesellschaft braucht dich.
Teacher: Ich kann, eindlich, sein Unwesen treiben

Hopefully, there are no conjunction mistakes.

Now to translation :

Teacher: We are beautiful creatures. We are creatures made of everything nice.
Kid: Are you sure about that? Behold! The magical creatures.
Teacher: What on earth is this
Unicorn: Don’t worry. I am present
Teacher: so? Your presence is essentially useless.
Unicorn: I will stick it in you.
Teacher:Waaaait… Sorry
Unicorn: Your absence would be better.
Teacher: but our school has compulsory attendance
Unicorn: STICKkk!
Sassy kid: He is always absent minded. This is an essential part of him.
Unicorn: I will stop then. We are similar. Our Society’s educational system needs you.
Teacher: I can finally mischief.

Side note : I copied the first question of the kid from dect.cc

Yup
Yup
2 years ago
Reply to  Yuppy

Sorry. Forgot to space

Yup
Yup
2 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

No problem. As for wait and Behold,they were used for comedit effect. Hence, I haven’t used a pronoun with them.

stefan
stefan
2 years ago

You mada a mistake, its:
war
warst
war
waren
wart* not ward
waren

javier
javier
6 years ago

Hey, something else. I knew you had written this but couldn’t find it in your list here: https://yourdailygerman.wordpress.com/german-word-of-the-day/ and got worried thinking it was gone. Glad to find it in “older posts”.

javier
javier
7 years ago

“Die Schauspieler hat eine beeindruckende Präsenz.”

Shouldn’t it be “Der”? Sorry, I’m just begining with German

berlingrabers
7 years ago

You mentioned “Kreatur” in comparison to “Wesen” – what does “das Geschöpf” sound like compared to the other two terms?

thelanglord
7 years ago

Hi Emanuel,
I’ve just come across your blog and I’m really impressed with the content you post! I’m a language enthusiast myself and along with some friends we’ve created a flashcard app. It’s called VocApp and offers a number of innovative features, such as creating flashcards from a photo,
creating flashcards with your voice, creating flashcards from a text etc.
I’ve prepared a set of 25 popular German verbs for you: http://vocapp.com/25-must-know-german-verbs-flashcards-196761
Please feel free to use it on your blog! I would be honoured if the community of your readers found it useful. Also, if you have any feedback that would help me develop VocApp, I would be forever grateful! If you wanted to give it a comprehensive test, I would be happy to give you access to our paid language courses.
Wishing you the best of luck,
Camille
camille@vocapp.com

Mohin
Mohin
7 years ago
Reply to  thelanglord

Hi thelanglord
Should say that’s innovative and creative. Nevertheless I think the picture denoting the meaning of “liegen” doesn’t fit. It rather conveys the verb “lügen”. I think there should a mistake due to the two meanings of the verb “lie”.
Hope it helps ;)

ellem910
ellem910
7 years ago

Kann man “anwesend” im Sinne von “mindful/present” benutzen? Ich meine zB, “ich bemühe mich, jeden Tag immer mehr anwesend zu sein”, “Der Buddhist übt das Anwesendsein (ist das ein Wort? lol)”, oder ännliches?

ellem910
ellem910
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Aha, alles klar, danke!

Daniel
Daniel
7 years ago
Reply to  ellem910

Shau dir mal einige Videos von Eckhart Tolle an. Er spricht die ganze Zeit davon.

ellem910
ellem910
7 years ago
Reply to  Daniel

Danke Daniel, ein guter Vorschlag! Ich guck mir gerade “Freiheit von Gedanken” an :)

ellem910
ellem910
7 years ago
Reply to  Daniel

Haha. Ich wollte eigentlich sagen, obwohl seine Stimme sehr “beruhigend” ist, als keine Muttersprachlerin, finde ich ihn irgendwie sehr leicht zu verstehen. Also, gut fürs Hörverstehen.

Daniel
Daniel
7 years ago
Reply to  Daniel

Kein Problem! Ich hatte letztes Jahr Panik-Attacken und Angstgefühl und Eckhart was quasi mein Einstieg in die Welt von Meditation. Als ich herausgefunden habe, dass er seine Videos auf Deutsch anbietet, war ich ziemlich froh! Er spricht sehr klar, langsam, aber so wirkt es nicht. Es ist nicht forciert. Du hast absolut recht, gut fürs Hörverstehen!

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Ja genau. Das mit *es/*bheue/*wesan hat mich einfach ans Meme erinnert. Keine Ahnung, ob das Zitat echt ist. Eigentlich wäre in dem Fall folgendes (grammatisch) richtig: “People don’t think it is like it is, but it is.” (Was auch nicht gerade als erleuchtend gilt…) Ist irgendwie interessant, wie in manchen englischen Dialekten (z.B. beim sogenannten “Ebonics”) die verschiedenen “to be”-Formen so unterschiedlich verwendet werden.

Es gibt auch bspw. das Lied aus den 40er Jahren mit dem Titel “Is You Is or Is You Ain’t My Baby”…

Ruth
Ruth
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

I’d suggest that some really don’t understand, but to others the meaning is perfectly clear, just as some people will see a “hidden” picture immediately and others struggle even when told what to look for. What’s really mad for me is that I hear it in my head in a very West Country (i.e. south-west of England – Dorset, Devon..) accent, although that clearly isn’t right for someone from Alabama. Cannot get it into a Deep South sound.

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Yeah, the knowyourmeme.com article expressed that same idea, that the quote wouldn’t be understandable to native speakers – I don’t get that at all. To me, the meaning is completely clear, and the humor is just in the sort of poetic weirdness of using three different verb forms where one would have worked, plus the classic situation of an athlete’s quote not saying much of anything at all. I would be really surprised if many native speakers had any problem deciphering it, so there’s probably at least something to your theory about people playing up the difficulty of understanding non-standard English.

Man, having produced a comment in perfect German kind of makes me not want to post in German anymore. Quit while I’m ahead, sort of thing… :) Thanks for your feedback!

I do preach pretty regularly in German, about once every month or two. It still takes a lot of time to prepare – in English, a day or two is enough for me to prep a sermon, while a German one takes more like a solid week of working on not much else. I tend to write out a pretty detailed manuscript, since I have less confidence to improvise based on notes like I could in my native language, but it’s definitely a goal of mine to get to where I’m comfortable speaking more freely. I actually taught a seminary class (a 6-hour all-day seminar) last month, which forced me to speak from notes (no way was I scripting out all that material), and that was definitely a confidence-booster.

I think my sermons have gone over well from a language standpoint… though mostly as a preacher you don’t really get much substantive feedback on any given sermon anyway. So I suppose that at least means I haven’t made any disastrous mistakes so far. :D For my first few sermons, I was meeting weekly with a tutor, and I’d usually bring the text of a story/illustration from the sermon that I was working on (typically something I was planning to open with) to try to polish it up, which was a great way to learn different expressions and tropes. I miss that.

Anonymous
Anonymous
7 years ago

Hi. I was wondering if you have updated the “Word of the Day” page recently?

Ruth
Ruth
7 years ago

Danke. Especially for the explanation of the patchwork/blended/smoothie verb “to be”.

Nun, ein paar Fragen über das Beispiel – “Training ist ein wesentlicher Teil des Sprachenlernens.” – “Training”, nicht “Übung”? Wie spricht man “Training” aus? (Wie auf Englisch??) Wie unterscheiden sich “Training” und “Übung”? (I hope that example wasn’t one of your little jokes and I missed it.)

If you know nothing else of Heidegger you could refer to Monty Python – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9SqQNgDrgg (No idea how/why Hegel became Freidrich, but at least spelling and pronunciation match.)

Daniel
Daniel
7 years ago
Reply to  Ruth

Man spricht “Training” “Trehning” aus. Das Wort wird, so weit ich weiß, als deutsch betrachtet. Bei manchen aus dem Englischen kommenden Wörtern werden die Laute von einigen Leuten so ausgesprochen, damit sie den englischen Lauten so gut wie möglich ähneln. Solche Wörter wären zum Beispiel “Thriller”, “Homepage”, “Productplacement”, “Jetlag” usw.

Möchten diese Leute gehobener klingen, sprechen sie diese Wörter mit einem pseudo-englischen Akzent aus. Training hängt aber mit denen nicht zusammen, da es schon längst ins Deutsche gekommen ist, und auch nicht wirklich als englisches Wort betrachtet wird. (Wie schon mal erwähnt, das ist nur so weit ich weiß.)

Aber man kann ja alle Wörter einfach mit der deutschen Aussprache aussprechen, um solche Situationen zu vermeiden. Sich um so was zu kümmern ist für mich halt Schwachsinn. Englisch ist zwar meine Muttersprache, aber wenn ich Deutsch rede, tue ich so, als könnte ich so gut wie kein Englisch, wenn ich solche Wörter ausspreche!

In Bezug auf den Gebrauch von Training und Üben, habe ich keine Ahnung. Also, wenn du “Üben” statt “Übung” meinst. Üben bezieht sich eher auf das Konzept des Verbs, so wie “Schlafen”, “Essen”, und “Leben”. Wörter, die auf “-ung” enden, beziehen sich im Gegensatz dazu meistens auf eine einzelne Ausführung des Verbs. Versuche zu erraten, warum ich Ausführung geschrieben habe. ;)
Ich würde sagen, sie sind in den meisten Fällen austauschbar. Da könnte ich mich aber irren.

Daniel
Daniel
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Hahaha, Mann stell die nur vor, in was für einem Zweispalt ich mich dabei befinde!! “Möchte gerne cool” trifft es gut. Das Mittelding mache ich mir auch zunutze. Definitiv cool zu wissen dass es bei echten Deutschen auch so ist.

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Ich höre “Training/Trainer/trainieren” ziemlich oft von Deutschen – ich habe bisher überhaupt keinen Versuch gemerkt, die englische Aussprache zu imitieren. Würde mit Daniel zustimmen.

Ruth
Ruth
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Danke. (Not continuing auf Deutsch, as it would take about a week, but thanks for the reading practice.)
Maybe it’s largely an age thing. In dict.cc, among lots of “Training” and an occasional “Ausbildung”, I found “Luftschutzübung – air raid precaution training”!! – probably more what would usually be called “drill”. In English I think of training as being quite structured and usually supervised (despite footwear and exercise machines called ‘trainers’) and also being directed to a specific goal – like running a marathon or doing a particular job… or winning football matches (which is rather less specific). I do see how it works in your example, especially with the German usage being mostly to do with sport and developing strength, but will continue to feel uncomfortable about a German sentence beginning with an English word.

It saddens me to see any language adopting English/American expressions rather than developing its own. (Hopelessly inconsistent, as I have little objection to foreign words in English. But English is already a super-sized linguistic smoothie.) One of the lovely things about German is the consistency of pronunciation/spelling. Adoption of words direct from less consistent languages, or languages with completely different spelling conventions, seems to complicate it unnecessarily. Perhaps “Training” will become “Trainieren” and/or “Trainierung”. That would be less startling. ……although “das Training” has clearly been around in German for some time – I’ve just found it in a 1980 dictionary……. but my tiny one from 1960 or thereabout has, for English “training” – die “Ausbildung” or das “Trainieren”, and for “trainer” – der “Erzieher” or der “Trainierer”. Viel besser!

Ruth
Ruth
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Are “Trainieren” and “Trainierer” still used in particular contexts? Duden online doesn’t recognise “Trainierer”, so I suppose it isn’t….. if it ever really was. (But there is a band called “die Trainierer”!?) I hadn’t come across “Autogenes Training” until now. “Autogenic” in English, apparently.
The spattering of English words in German must confuse native English speakers, too, and lead some to say some crazy stuff. I wonder if English borrowings are more used in Berlin than elsewhere, or more in the old West than in the old East. .. Perhaps there are borrowings from Russian in use in former DDR, and some even in general use.
Learning German at school, long ago (without internet!), and far away from German-speaking countries (in Australia) would have been skewed towards older usage. Even a native speaking teacher would have been rather out of touch (my teachers would have left Europe 25 to 30 years before and returned rarely, if ever), the emphasis was very much on written work, not conversation, and books always at least some years behind the times. There may also have been deliberate avoidance of obvious borrowings from English. It might be easier to wipe the memory entirely and start again than to try to rebuild on the remnants.
Many thanks for all the insights you provide.

Anon
Anon
7 years ago

Great work. I really appreciate these blog posts, they’re the best German source I’ve been able to find, and I paid for two fuckin’ German courses here in Berlin. My German could be better, but I’m practising Maths more than German, catching up, the price of a shitty education.
I’ll be sure to send you a few bucks, I’m not rich, that’s for sure, but that’s the good thing about crowd funding, right? Enough people sending a few bucks.

Hu-Mann
Hu-Mann
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Und die Bibliothekare sind immer so sympathisch.

Olga
Olga
7 years ago

Es war informativ und interessant zu lesen. Danke für die Erklärung, die endlich mir geholfen hat, das Wort ‘anwesend’ zu lernen.
Ich habe eine Frage: In overvew von dem Verb ‘sein’ gibt es eine der Wortformen ‘ward’, warum es nicht ‘wart’ ist?
Danke sehr dafür, dass du uns auf das Wesentliche der Deutschsprache konzentrierst.

Olga
Olga
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Danke für das Wort ‘Übersicht’! Ich war mir nicht sicher, welches Wort statt ‘overvew’ ich verwenden muss.
Duden sagt, dass ‘ward’ veraltetes Form von werden in Präteritum ist.Vielleicht gibt es deshalb dieses Verbform in alten Texten. Oder ist es auch das alte Verbform von sein?
Danke dafür, dass du immer Zeit, um zu antworten, findest.

Olga
Olga
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Super! Ich freue mich darauf. :) Es ist sehr nützlich, die Übersicht über Sicht und Blick zu haben.

Michael
Michael
7 years ago

Great post. I wanted to say that I’ve been reading this blog since ages and it’s sau-cool! I do wanted to ask something. You wrote that the Indo-Europen *bheue is the origin of some Romance past forms with f… How? how does “b” change into “f”? this is strange :)
p.s. You should have mentioned Heidegger. He is doing wonders (or atrocities, that depends) with the Wesen…

Michael
Michael
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

well, I would guess that “future” is just another (future?) form of *bheue, no? :)