Word of the Day – “Teil”

teil-meaning-germanHello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day. This time we’ll have a look at the meaning of

Teil

 

Teil is the German word for part and it is related to the English word deal. Wait, the business deal? Yeah, that one. A few centuries ago deal was much closer to the original “not as ancient as Indo-European but still freaking ancient”-Proto Germanic root that was all about share, part, amount. And in fact, this notion is still visible today. Just take these phrases:

  • That helps a great deal.
  • A good deal of movie’s success is due to the excellent cast.

These are not not about trade. These are about large parts. The helps solved a substantial part of the problem and a substantial part of the success is thanks to the cast. The business-deal was … uhm… coined some 200 years ago, probably based on the meaning amount, which is not that far from part.
We’ll see even more connections between Teil and deal once we get to the verbs. But the noun Teil is really really cool and useful and there’s a lot to say about it. Let’s start with the gender. Yeay. That annoying gender that all the nouns have . Well guess what. Teil is an exception!
Now you’re like “Wow, really. A word without gender? AWESOME!!! That is the start of the revolution!!!” but then you see my face all serious and emphatic and you begin to realize… “It has two genders, doesn’t it?”
Yes, it does. There’s der Teil and das Teil because… reasons. And the two stand for different kinds of parts. Das Teil is a tangible part, more like a piece.

  • Meine Waschmaschine ist kaputt und das Ersatzteil kostet 300 Euro.
  • My washing machine is broken and the replacement part costs 318 dollars.
  • Ich glaube, bei dem Bausatz fehlt ein Teil. Hast du es gesehen? (not “ihn”)
  • I think there’s a part missing in the assembly set. Have you seen it?

Oh and das Teil also used as a colloquial, slangy term for thing, either in context of something like a cool phone, a cool surf board or a cool zucchini or in context of something that sucks, usually because it’s broken

  • “Guck mal die Zucchini da… die ist ja so groß wie ein Kürbis.”
    “Boah krasses Teil. “
  • “Look, that zucchini over there… it’s almost as big as a pumpkin”
    “Wow, what a whale.”
  • Vor einer Woche wurde die Waschmaschine repariert und jetzt ist das Scheißteil schon wieder kaputt.
  • The washing machine was fixed one week ago and now the freaking thing is broken again.

All right. So das Teil is for actual, physical parts. And der Teil is for all the rest. All these abstract parts like a part of a book or a part of a country or a part of an idea.

  • Den ersten Teil hab’ ich nicht gesehen aber der zweite Teil war ganz gut.
  • I’ve not seen the first part but the second part was all right.
  • Ein kleiner Teil von mir will Sport machen, der Rest will im Park sitzen und Bier trinken.
  • A small part of me wants to do sports, the rest wants to sit in the park and drink beer.
  • Der Teil von euch, der die Hausaufgaben nicht gemacht hat, muss dem Teil, der sie gemacht hat, einen Kaffee ausgeben. (not “das“)
  • Those of you who haven’t done their homework have to treat those who did a coffee.
  • “Krieg’ ich einen Teil von deiner Zeitung?”
    “Ja, aber nicht den Sportteil.”
  • “Can I have a part of your newspaper?”
    “Yeah but not sports.”

    (one thing that I REALLY REALLY love about German newspapers is that they consist of
    3 or 4 or 5 independent brochure-like parts whilst in other countries they
    are more like one magazine. The cool thing about the German system is that you can disassemble the paper by topic in literally a second and then you can share it. Perfect for breakfast. One person gets the sports the other the “Feuilleton” (cultural part). Or you could just take on part with you and leave the rest at home. Anyways,
    though this could be technically “das Teil” too, as it is a physical part, it
    is called “der Teil” because people think of it in sense of topic, not
    paper…but I feel like I digress :)

Usually native speakers have a clear idea whether something is der or das. In fact , the only grey area I can think of are body parts. Der and das Körperteil – you ca find either. The version with das sounds like the body is a machine with different components, while the version with der sounds more like the body is a one, a whole that only has abstract parts… but honestly… I don’t think people think it through all that much. They just use what they’re used to.
All right. So this is der Teil and das Teil. There is a clear distinction but you don’t need to worry too much. You’ll be understood even if you get it wrong. And if you really have no clue… then go with der. It’s more common and it’s the article for most of the fewzillion really useful Teil-words. That are out there. Which brings us to our next topic

A fewzillion useful Teil-words

We’ve already seen some random compounds like Ersatzteil or Sportteil and there are many many more of those but there are also a few that are really really really really important.
The first one is der Anteil and that is a Teil with a focus on that it belongs to someone, either in sense of possession (share) or in the more abstract sense of belonging to a group (percentage, proportion).

  • Thomas hatte großen Anteil am Erfolg des Projekts.
  • A large chunk of the project’s success is due to Thomas. (is that idiomatic?)
  • Der Ausländeranteil in Sachsen ist nicht annähernd so hoch wie manche Leute dort denken.
  • The percentage of foreigners living in Saxony (a state of Germany) is nowhere near as high as some people there think that it is.
  • Sahne am Essen und trotzdem schlank werden geht nicht? Doch! Jetzt neu: Model’s Choice Sahne™ – mit einem Fettanteil von -10%.
  • Cooking with cream and still lose weight is impossible? No! Brand new: Model’s Choice Cream™ – with a fat content of -10%.
  • McDonald’s auf Diät! Der Konzern verliert Monat für Monat Marktanteile in den USA.
  • McDonald’s on a diet! The company’s share of the US market is growing thinner by the moth.

And if you’re now like “Aw, poor McDonald’s. I’m so sorry for you.” then what you’re doing is called Anteil nehmen which is used in sense of to sympathize with/ to feel for someone. You take a share of the burden… well not really, more just mentally. The noun die Anteilnahme (sympathy, commiseration) is the most common use probably.
Anyway, let’s move on to the next words: der Vorteil and der Nachteil. Literally it’s the “forepart” and the “after part and the real translations are…. advantage and disadvantage. Like… just think of a pack of wolves that has just hunted down a soy deer. The boss wolf gets to eat first so he gets the best parts, the and the nonathletic, nerdy wolf just gets the leftovers . And then the boss wolf has eaten better and will do better on the next hunt while the nerd wolf will have trouble keeping. Nature is so unfair. But anyway, Vorteil and Nachteil are used more broadly than (dis)advantage but the idea is always in there – first part is the best, the after part sucks.

  • Ein Vollzeitjob hat Vor- und Nachteile.
  • A full time job has pros and cons.
  • Manager sein hat so seine Vorteile.
  • Being the manager has its perks.
  • Der Vorteil von früh Losfahren ist, dass wir nicht in den Stau kommen. (warning: colloquial grammar… don’t write stuff like this. But it’s how people talk)
  • The benefit of driving early is that we won’t hit traffic.

And, because they’re really super common here a few examples with related words

  • Diese Hose ist nicht sehr vorteilhaft.
  • These pants are not very flattering.
  • Du willst noch mehr abnehmen? Dann nimm den Model’s Choice Vorteilspack mit Model’s Choice Almonds und Model’s Choice Olivenöl (also: das Vorteilspaket)
  • You want to lose even more weight? Then take the Model’s Choice value pack. With Model’s Choice Almonds and Model’s choice Olive Oil.
  • Frauen werden bei der Bezahlung immer noch benachteiligt.
  • Women are still being discriminated against/put at a disadvantage when it come to pay.
    Women are still being “inflicted after-part upon when it comes to pay. (lit.)

So… those were der Vorteil and der Nachteil and they are actually opposites. Why am I mentioning that? Well because our next word is das Gegenteil, which is the opposite. “Counter part”, opposite… that makes perfect sense I think.

  • The opposite of warm is cold.
  • Das Gegenteil von warm ist kalt.
  • Was ist das Gegenteil von faul?
  • What’s the opposite of lazy?
  • “Du warst baden?? War das nicht viel zu kalt?”
    Im Gegenteil... war überraschend warm.”
  • “You took a swim?? Wasn’t that way too cold?”
    On the contrary... it was surprisingly warm.”
  • Ich bin gegenteiliger Ansicht.
  • I’m of the opposite opinion.

The last one with that fancy Genitive in there is actually quite high brow. You could use that as a joke if a friend suggests to not get another beer but gegenteilig itself isn’t really that common. And also Gegenteil is not as broad as opposite. It’s really about the direct opposite like cold – warm or small – big.
All right.
Now there are of course many many more useful ones. Oberteil for instance is a generic word for a piece of clothing for the upper body.

  • Maria hat ein schönes Oberteil an.
  • Maria is wearing a nice top (shirt, blouse)

Or take Elternteil. Eltern means parents and it only exists in plural. So if you need one without wanting to say mom or dad you could say Elternteil. It does sound a bit technical though

  • In vielen Familien haben beide Elternteile einen Job.
  • In many families both parents have a job.

And how do they manage to both have jobs and still be there for their children? Exactly, they work part time which is a … you go ahead and say it.. Beschäftigungsverhältnis mit verringerter Wochenarbeitszeit. Exactly!
But you can also call it Teilzeit.

  • Maria sucht eine Teilzeitstelle.
  • Maria is searching for a part time job.

The Gegenteil of Teilzeit is Vollzeit by the way… or Freizeit. Really depends on how you look at it.
All right. I think now we’ve seen the bigger part of the really useful one… or in German der Großteil.

  • Wir haben heute einen Großteil der Arbeit geschafft.
  • We got the bigger part/the majority of the work done today.
  • Der Großteil der Anwohner ist gegen das neue Einkaufszentrum.
  • The majority of the people living in the neighborhood are against the new shipping mall.

A variation of that is größtenteils which usually translates to mostly or for the most part.

  • Die Leute beim Festival waren größtenteils jünger als ich.
  • The people at the festival were mostly younger than me.

Cool.
So now that we’ve seen the most important Teil-nouns, it’s time to move to the verbs and man, they are just as useful. But then again… what would be more fitting for a post about Teile to have it… in parts. Hoooray… just like movies.
But seriously, I think we’ve had a lot of input already and there’s a lot more to come so let’s make a break and give all the words a chance to sink in.
To wrap this up here’s another Teil-word: das Teilchen. Literally it means particle. Teilchen – cutest physics term ever! Like… it’s really the official word they use in books and stuff. Teilchen. So cu… wait a second. Particle? Let me look that up real quick… oh my god, it’s the exact same idea. Particle comes from Latin particula which was tiny cute version of partis (part). Wow, this is cool. Hey and actually, have you ever noticed just how big the part-family is… part, participle, apart, apartment, department, (political) party and also anything with portion in it AND here’s the best one… partner. It’s soooo obvious once you know it but wow… I was really surprised. Anyway… this wasn’t really about German but I kind of wanted to … ahem… share it :).
That’s it for today folks. As always if you have any questions or suggestions just leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time with part 2.

Vocab (some weren’t in the post)

das Teil – tangible piece or part
der Teil – all other parts
der Vorteil – the advantage, the perk, the benefit, the pro, the plus
der Nachteil – the disadvantage, the con
benachteiligen – put at a disadvantage
der Großteil, größtenteils – the bigger part, the (vast) majority
das Ersatzteil – the spare/replacement part
das Scheißteil – the piece of crap

der Scheißteil – The Hunger Games 3.1 – Mocking Jay
der Anteil – the share (also in finance)
die Abteilung – the department
das Abteil – the compartment (wasn’t in the post… don’t worry, you didn’t miss it)
das Teilchen – the particle

der Teilchenbeschleuniger – the particle accelerator
das Gegenteil – the opposite
im Gegenteil – on the contrary
das Urteil – the verdict, the judgement
das Vorurteil – the prejudice
verurteilen – to judge
vorverurteilen – to prejudge
teilzeit – part time
vollzeit – full time
der Erdteil – the continent
der Stadtteil – the district/part of the city
der Einteiler – the one piece suit/onesie

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Monty
Monty
9 months ago

Another fabulous article! Thank you so much for all the hard work you put into these analyses!

Carsten Sprunger
Carsten Sprunger
5 years ago

Your English is amazing. How did you achieve such a high level?

Carsten Sprunger
Carsten Sprunger
5 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Well, congrats! It’s really quite incredible the amount of native English. At least in your more recent posts, you can read a ton before hitting any clue that you’re not native. Somehow it feels like ex-girlfriend may have been the x-factor :P At least, it would be really motivating for me.

I also wanted to say that I often find your explanations very insightful and quite clever, that it seems like you notice general patterns in your language very well. I can often get the vibe of a tricky word or prefix or whatever from your posts, which really is rather difficult to find, and that allows me to connect the dots much more quickly and successfully myself, learning from the outside. Thanks!

Anonymous
Anonymous
6 years ago

Hi Emanuel! I’m not an English native speaker. Still I got a question. Your example:

Manager sein hat so seine Vorteile.

Why “seine”? As in your English version “its” is used, and it refers to the fact “Being a manager”. So in the German version does “seine” refer to “Manager”?

Anonymous
Anonymous
6 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Thanks for the quick reply. It seems I did not do my homework well. When I saw “seine” I thought the activity was “male”, but “seine” can actually be the possessive form of neutral nouns. Sorry! Next time I will do my homework more carefully before asking a question :)

Jason Harrison
Jason Harrison
7 years ago

Great word of the day! I hear and see this a lot so it’s useful to be able to put a bit of background to it.
A word I come across a lot which I can’t see mentioned is ‘teilweise’. I get the fundamental ‘partly/partially’ to it, but I’ve seen it around a couple of times where I can’t quite put a translation on it. I guess it sort of has a ‘sometimes’ feel to it as well?

Keep up the good work!

Jason Harrison
Jason Harrison
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

I look forward to it!

artur
artur
7 years ago

Thanks for the great post. Very useful word in german. I only have one question, however. How does” Du warst baden? ” work in this case? I’m a little confused :)

Artur
Artur
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Oh , I should have been more clear :) All your examples here are great. I’m just struggling particularly with the “Du warst baden” sentence. I don’t quite get it from a grammatical standpoint. Does it work here as past progressive? Sorry, if my question is too obvious. I just started learning German and I enjoy it so so much. It’s my kinda language :)

artur
artur
7 years ago
Reply to  Artur

Hi Emanuel, I guess I scared you off by saying I’m new to German and it’s pointless to spend time on a dummy who just started :) Well, not quite, in fact, I have been studying it for a year now. But I might have omitted in my grammar book ( or they have ommited ) a chapter that would explain the use of “sein” form (warst) and an infinitive (baden). Thanks in advance for the answer.

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  artur

Hey Artur, just hang in there and he’ll get to your question. I think I’ve seen this whole weird little exception discussed either in a post or in comments somewhere on here, but I can’t find it at the moment. I can’t remember all the ins and outs of it, but basically it’s a shorthand way to describe past activities. It’s not far off from the way you’d use past progressive in English in some circumstances, but it doesn’t really have that progressive aspect (unless the situation requires it, maybe?).

It’s really a spoken-only form, as far as I know – I definitely never saw it in a textbook. Have you seen phrasings like “Ich gehe baden”? It’s really like that, just less “correct” (less formally acceptable, anyway).

Emanuel can correct me if I’m leading you astray…

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  artur

I guess I always thought the gehen/kommen ones were more correct and the sein versions were informal or spoken-only. So my assumption was that…

– Du warst baden?

…was short for

– Du bist baden gegangen?

…or something like that. But I guess that’s just me being skittish about something that sounds too English to my ear. :)

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader
7 years ago
Reply to  artur

The main thing that you should know is that sein + infinitive is strictly for informal language (unlike gehen + infinitive), so don’t try to put it in your essays, tech reports or other official documents ;)

artur
artur
7 years ago

Thank you very much for the clarification, all of you. That really helps.

Adam
Adam
7 years ago

“Manager sein hat so seine Vorteile.”
I have a question about the subject (“Manager sein”) in this sentence. “sein” looks live a verb so how can it be a subject?

“Mockingjay pt.1” was no so bad but it’s annoying that probably they’ve splitted the final part only to earn more money.

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

“one fraction of Germans complain about hyphens and call people dumb who overuse it”

Das ist ja kein Argument, da das genau in diesem Fall kein Übermaß ist.

Manager-bei-Mercedes-Sein ist auch richtig.

http://www.duden.de/sprachwissen/rechtschreibregeln/bindestrich

“Regel 27:

Substantivisch gebrauchte Infinitive mit mehreren Bestandteilen schreibt man mit Bindestrichen, wenn sonst unübersichtliche und schwer lesbare Aneinanderreihungen entstehen .

zum Aus-der-Haut-Fahren
das Nicht-mehr-fertig-Werden”

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader
7 years ago
Reply to  Adam

It should be Manager-Sein, a noun.

Albeit it does look a bit like Manager-Sensei :D

Biene Maya
Biene Maya
7 years ago

So funny….I JUST looked this word up the other day and now I know all about it! Much thanks, as usual!

Margaret
Margaret
7 years ago

Wow. Ich habe gedacht, ich habe das Wort gelernt, und ich wusste nicht der Großteil. Sehr schön, wie immer, danke. (Und die Wortschatzliste gefällt mir sehr, super hilfreich)

Also, on the subject of der/das Körperteil: People can do a similar thing in English.
“Maria hurt her leg and it/she is bleeding now.” “She” sounds slightly more personal, like a worried friend more than a doctor, but that’s a tiny difference and not something most people think about. Maybe when I’m editing my bestselling novel :) Also, it only works because the pronoun could be either for the leg or for Maria, so not in most sentences.

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  Margaret

I agree with the basic thrust of what you’re saying about the pronouns, but I think “she’s bleeding” sounds quite a bit more serious than “it’s bleeding” – just because, as you say, one’s referring to the part and one’s referring to the whole.

To me, it’s hard not to hear “das Körperteil” as a body part that is… well, unattached. :0

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

I’m truly grateful not to have found out…

Ruth
Ruth
7 years ago

Das Teilen, die Teilung, die Division. Do they all mean the mathematical operation? If so, what determines which is used? Is there any difference in usage of der Teiler and der Faktor?

Ruth
Ruth
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Danke. “Nenner und Zahler”, so much simpler than “denominator and numerator”. The Teilen/Teilung distinction makes perfect sense now. Genau wie “das Rechnen” und “die Rechnung”.

“Größter gemeinsamer Teiler” has emerged from de.wikipedia and pointed also to “teilbar”. Ich erfreue mich!

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

So is the English, for sure. It’s typically negative/critical:

– The films of Michael Bay pander to the least common denominator.

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Ah, OK… that’s a pretty different meaning, then. In the English expression, the “least common denominator” means the people, or at least their tastes and interests – Michael Bay movies appeal to the basic human desire to see stuff blow up real good, which is why they’re popular even though they’re not well made.

I think you could use the phrase to talk about a compromise solution and it might be understandable, but I don’t think it’s the way most English-speakers would first think to use it.

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader
7 years ago

Und zu guter Letzt darf ein besonders wichtiges Teil nicht unerwähnt bleiben ;)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOPu0QFDWXg

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader
7 years ago

Die deutsche Sprache hat mich immer an eine Programmiersprache erinnert, mit ihrer Satzklammern und was auch immer. Das schießt aber den Vogel ab (und ja, ich kenne schon den Ausdruck):

“Eltern means parents and it only exists in plural. So if you need one without wanting to say mom or dad you could say Elternteil. It does sound a bit technical though”

Das wäre dann:

class Eltern {Teil_1, Teil_2, …};
Eltern.Teil_1 = …

;)

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader
7 years ago

One useful rule of thumb that I read somewhere: if you can replace the Teil-word with “[das] Stückchen”, it’s das. Not that applicable to the more abstract stuff, but hey.

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Certainly better than a piece of a thumb…

SusEwBo
SusEwBo
7 years ago

I missed Teilnahme, which I once confused with Anteilnahme. But thanks for another fun lesson!

gregturn
gregturn
7 years ago

Meine Anki Decke hat “teilnehmen” as “participate”. Besser als “partake”, ehh?

berlingrabers
7 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Eigentlich könnte “partake” eine richtige Übersetzung für “teilnehmen” sein, wobei es eher nach dem Mitverzehren von Essen o.ä. klingt (wie “an einem Essen teilnehmen”).

Es gibt ja auch “take part” als Synonym für “participate”. Beides gehört zur alltäglichen, normalen Sprachebene.

berlingrabers
7 years ago

Do you have any insight into why it’s “das Urteil”? It seems really counterintuitive, since most of the more abstract “-teil” compounds are masculine.

Pelle Salomonsson
Pelle Salomonsson
6 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Urteil is not related do Teil at all, but to ordeal. A completely different indoeuropean stem. If I understand it correctly.

Pelle Salomonsson
Pelle Salomonsson
6 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Yes funny, I was just going to try to delete my ill-advised comment.

jwan
jwan
7 years ago

Boah Sie sind ein krasser lehrer.
I loved German language but because you I love it much.

keep going
thanks alot

Albert
Albert
7 years ago

Du has “Bestandteil” nicht erwähnt, ich sehe dieses Wort ziemlich oft.

Nikolaus Wittenstein

“Manager sein hat so seine Vorteile.”
“Being the manager has its perks.”

Können sie sagen, was “so” hier bedeutet? Ich würde “Being the manager has its perks.” als “Manager sein hat seine Vorteile.” übersetzen.
Danke!

Nikolaus Wittenstein

Are newspapers not normally like that? In the States all newspapers are that way (that is, they come in sections by topic).

Kvrdz
Kvrdz
7 years ago

Eine kleine Bemerkung,”Großenteils” lässt sich auch als “for the most part” übersetzen, oder?