False Friends Explained – “spenden vs to spend”

Hello everyone,

and welcome to a new episode of False Friends Explained, this time with a look at

spenden vs to spend

And those two are actually not THAT far apart. Still, there’s a lot of room for confusion.

  • I spend 150 Dollars on Sushi every day.
  • Ich spende jeden Tag 150 Dollar für Sushi.

Because while the English sentence makes you sound like a rich snob who is completely out of touch with the reality of the common man, the German sentence makes you sound like… uhm… a generous rich snob. Who is totally out of touch with the reality of the common man. I mean, seriously… donating 150 bucks for Sushi. Come on.
But yeah, that’s what spenden is…


… because spenden is the German word for to donate.

Actually, it’s a bit broader than to donate and the translations can vary.

Jesus Christ… feuchtigkeitsspendendes.?!?! Moisturizing the listener, this word. How is anyone supposed to pronounce this. And it’s sooo loooong. No wonder that the German version of Scrabble is called Scabbabbbligkeitsungität and has an edge length of 2 meters. And that’s the travel edition.
Anyway, even though the translation is not always to donate, the core of German spenden is kind of a selfless giving and it DOESN’T have this notion of investment or trade that the English to spend has.
And now the question is, which language messed up the meaning? Let’s take a look at the history and find out.

As Germanic as they might seem, to spend and spenden actually come from Latin and are closely related to words like expensive and expense. That makes sense, right. Oh and dispenser is also related, so we have another parallel there.
The origin is the verb pendere which we also have in words like depend or pendulum. Pendere was about hanging and expendere was about weighing and paying. Wait… how does that any sense… let me read up real quick… uh… okay …  apparently, the meaning was inspired by a scale. Like… weighing the gold or silver for a trade by putting it out on a hanging dish. Oh man, I wonder what these Romans were smoking.
Anyway, so the Latin expendere already was about paying and expensive, expense and spend have stayed true to that, while spenden lost the aspect of commerce and shifted toward giving.
But the original meaning has survived in the related noun die Spesen. It’s a plural only noun and it’s the German word for expense. Well, actually it’s more business expenses so expenses you have for the job. But it’s at the heart of a really common idiom that describes that you put in a lot of effort without getting any benefit.

And this example actually brings us right to the next related word, which is quite the surprise, even though it is just an i away. Die Speise is a German word for … a meal. And we don’t actually need much crazy mind yoga to understand the connection. The word was coined by monks. They spoke a lot of Latin and their main expense was food. Tadaah. And by the way… in Italian there is la spesa and even though it can technically mean expense, you will see it a LOT in context of buying food.
It’s not the only word German has for that, and it’s not used that much as a stand alone but there are a few REALLY common compounds with it.

And there’s the verb speisen, which is a pompous snobby sounding option for to eat. And for some reason it’s also used in context of “giving electricity into a system” … I mean… it’s nothing you need to use actively. I just wanted to mention it because it might be confusing when you read the sentence word “Einspeisevergütungsgesetz.” in the context of renewable energies. But okay… I guess that is confusing either way.
Anyways,  last but not least, there’s the verb spendieren, and this one is kind of the little, light hearted brother of spenden. Like… spenden has this serious vibe of someone being in need. Spendieren is more about giving out treats.

Not super common but it’s one of those words that’ll really make you sound like a native speaker if you use it at the right moment.
Cool.
So now we know what spenden is and where it comes from. But there’s one more thing we need to answer: how to actually translate to spend.
And the answer to that is the answerest answer ever

“It depends.”©
Answer to all questions German language since 1834

For spending money, the word is  ausgeben (we’ve talked about it in detail in another article, I’ll link it in the vocab section) and for anything time based like weeks or vacations or child hoods, the word to go is verbringen.

And there are a few other options but they’re rather specific so if you have a context in mind that you’re unsure about, let’s just talk about it in the comment.
And that’s it for today. This was our look at the pair of false friends that is spenden and to spend.
As always, if you have any questions or suggestions just leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.

** vocab **

spenden (gespendet) – to donate (also: to give)
die Spende – the donation
der Spender – the donor
spendieren (spendiert)  – give out as treat 
spendabel – generous

die Spesen (plural) – the business expenses

die Speise – the dish, meal, food
das Speiseöl  – cooking oil
die Speisekarte – the food menu
die Hauptspeise – the main course
die Speiseröhre – thing through which the food slides into the stomach

ausgeben – to spend money  (find the article here)
verbringen – to spend time (and time based things)

 

for members :)

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RuthE
RuthE

Vielen Dank um auf noch einen falschen Freund hinzuweisen. Selbst wenn ich mich nicht erinnere, zumindest geht meine Warnglocke aus. (I couldn’t decide whether to use um or auf, so I used both for fun.)

Bezüglich “entrée for main course? Is that on purpose to tease the French?” :-D Ja, es ist Mehrzweck! Aber es ist doch keine dumm Amerikaner Verwendung. Ich habe hier eine Erklärung gefunden: https://www.casaschools.com/why-americans-say-entree-for-main-course/ Eine weitere Diskussion geht hier: https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/101852/why-is-a-meals-main-course-referred-to-as-entree

alanmarsee
alanmarsee

Thanks for this info. I’m a history nerd and I found it very interesting.

RuthE
RuthE

You are quite welcome, fellow history nerd! :-D

aoind
aoind

Obwohl er zufrieden sein mag, Ihren hilfreichen Artikel zu lesen, dürfte ein Französischer noch in einem amerikanischen Restaurant geärgert werden, wenn er ein “French dip sandwich served “with au jus“” bestellen würde.

RuthE
RuthE

Ich finde es mehr als eine Quelle der Belustigung. Unfähiges Marketing, das nicht auf Englisch beschränkt ist. :-)

Antonio
Antonio

I would like to earnestly extend my heartfelt gratitude to all the people who have contributed to the subsidy of memberships to those who may not afford it at the moment, such as inhabitants of countries wherein the acquisition of foreign currency is increasingly onerous and exorbitant. As soon as an opportunity to do so emerges, I plan to donate and thereby contribute to the continuance of such a virtuous and sympathetic purpose. I would have not concluded this comment without having expressed my indebtedness to Mr. Schuchart for everything! Saying thank you hardly suffices after all what you do.

Herzlichen Dank nochmal,

Antonio

Anonymous
Anonymous

In English, we often say something like, “After expenses, there was nothing left.” But this refers to money and not quite what you were talking about. Just thought I’d throw this in there.

alanmarsee
alanmarsee

You will probably hear something like “all for nothing.” Example: I did this all for nothing. It literally means the same thing as Außer Spesen nix gewesen, just shorter. Sometimes, people may only use the idiom w/o a complete sentence. Example: I’m looking at all the work I just did after I find out that there is no pay off and I simply say, “all for nothing.”

alanmarsee
alanmarsee

I didn’t understand your question. Lap cam or fluffy being idiomatic English?

alanmarsee
alanmarsee

I’ve been away from this blog community for a while, but I’ve committed to becoming active again. I really like this blog.

deidelta

I just found out that I am moving to Germany in less than five months! However, money has been tight after my motorcycle accident, and it’s hard to find a quality German language learning course on a tight budget. Thanks to the members that donated scholarships, I am able to study quickly and easily from an amazing course. Thank you all so much!

Alan
Alan

I think the word treated in the third camera context works.
For the other one perhaps, after bills there was nothing?

Anonymous
Anonymous

The closest English equivalent that I can think of for “Außer Spesen nix gewesen” – although not commonly used – is “BFH”, as explained here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullseye_(UK_game_show)
‘If they succeeded, they received the Star Prize and kept their previous winnings; if not, they lost all cash/prizes they had risked… the host would tell the team that they would receive only their “BFH” (bus fare home) if they lost.’

aoind
aoind

They did also get to “come and have a look at what [they] could have won”, which was delightfully cruel. Usually something really cool like a speedboat. Which was suspicious because whenever they did actually win the star prize it was a bottom-of-the-range British made hatchback car.

Tim Muller
Tim Muller

Ich würde ‘treat’ in diesem Kontext (iPhone) nicht sagen. Ich weiß aber nicht, welches Wort richtig ist, außer ‘endowed’ (zu formal) oder ‘pimped’ (zu umgangssprachlich). ‘Treat’ würde ich nur in diesem Sinn sagen, wenn es um eine Person geht, zB ‘I’ll treat you to a coffee’.

Und für ‘Aus Spesen nichts gewesen’, könnte man vielleicht ‘today was a total waste of makeup’ sagen!

Anonymous
Anonymous

Dankeschön! very useful for me as a beginner of learning Deutsch.

Ich nehm’ die Einhornsuppe als Vorspeise and the Kobe Unicorn Ribeye als Hauptspeise.
—>und das :)

berlingrabers
berlingrabers

Is there an Indo-European root behind the Latin? I recently came across σπένδω spendō in the Greek New Testament, there meaning “pour out as a libation/drink offering.” Seems to fit in there somewhere, although it’s hard to see much connection to the “pend” root.

“Spende/spenden” and “ausgeben” always screws up my English (and that of my German-speaking American friends) – it’s kind of funny that “spend” and “give out” have almost the exact opposite meanings to “spenden” and “ausgeben” respectively.