Word of the Day – “folgen”

Hello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day. This time with a look at the meaning of

folgen

 

Now you’re like Folgen?! Isn’t that kinda boring?”
But no, quite the opposite: not kinda boring.
Actually, it’s super exciting. We’ll see the full scope of what you can do with the idea of following. And we’ll gain incredible, mind boggling insights into English and Latin, and super useful prefix versions that’ll twist our minds. and see heaps of useful words. And plenty of boring, dry phrasings that can help you give your B1 writing assignment just the bloat it needs.
Pretty cool right?
So follow me into the wonderful world of folgen.

And let’s just get the obvious out of the way and look at a few examples where folgen and follow really line up.

  • Ich folge dir in die Küche.
  • I follow you to the kitchen.
  • Ich hoffe, ihr könnt mir folgen.
  • I hope you can follow me.
    (works in both senses, real following and following a train of thought)
  • Wir gehen wie folgt vor.
  • We’ll proceed/do it as follows.

Note that folgen uses a dative (mir, dir) and not accusative (mich, dich), so it’s NOT a direct object as in English. You’re following “to someone” in German. But other than that it’s pretty straight forward.

Now, what’s the core idea of the verbs? You might be like “What a weird question, Emanuel? The core idea of following is following.”
Of course, you’re right.  The idea of following, or in other words, the idea that one thing comes after another thing is a pretty basic concept and as is often the case with basic concepts, it can be molded in many a way. And while English is content having one word for the full range, German is like “I’m gonna need at least half a dozen words to cove…” oh… wait… haha… it’s actually the other way around for once. English uses a variety of words and phrasings to cover all you can do with the idea while German does a lot with folgen.
Let’s look at some common examples.

  • Auf Regen folgt Sonne.
  • After rain, comes the sun.
  • Die Ming Dynastie folgte der Yuan Dynastie in China.
  • The Ming dynasty succeeded the yuan dynasty in China.
  • Fortsetzung folgt
  • To be continued…
  • Lit.: Continuation will follow
  • A ist kleiner als B, B ist kleiner als A.  Daraus folgt,  dass Einhörner existieren.
  • A is smaller than B and B is smaller than A. That implies/”from this it follows” that unicorns exist.
    (think of that as a fixed phrasing more than a general translation for “to imply”)

The last example might seem a bit odd. There, the idea of A comes after B is used in a sense of deduction and logic. So that’s a little bit of mind yoga, I guess. But the others are pretty clear, I think.
However, that’s still not all there is to the idea of following. And to find out what else is there, we’ll now turn toward the noun die Folge.

  • Der Sportler ist dreimal in Folge Olympiasieger geworden.
  • The athlete won Olympic gold three times in a row.
  • Ich habe gestern 4 Folgen hintereinander geguckt.
  • I watched four episodes in a row yesterday.
  • “Ich habe Whisky, Bier und Apfelschorle getrunken.”
    “In umgekehrter Reihenfolge, nehm ich mal an.” (lit.: row-sequence)
  • “I drank Whiskey, beer and [apple juice mixed with soda]”
    “In reverse order, I take it.”

All these examples were still about the idea of one after another in some way.  But Folge has another BIG meaning. You know what a very basic, well-nigh universal example for one after the other is?
Cause and effect.
First cause, then the effect. It’s a sequence. Effect is a follow-up for cause. And because effect only happened beCAUSE (“be cause”… get it, get it?) of cause, we call it consequence. Sequence, consequence… they sound differently but they’re the same word, just with a prefix.
The origin is the Latin verb sequi and now guess what that meant… to follow. What a coincidence. And there are more words from that origin.  Sequel for instance or the verb pursue (originally: “per-sequi”), which is one of English’s option for the idea of following. Or how about second –  the one that follows in a sequence. Pretty cool, right?
And it gets actually even cooler if we look even further into the past toward the mega ancient Indo-European root *skew. Let me tell ya’, if you’re interested in how and where words got their meaning, this root is proper fapping material. Erm… I mean amazing material. But we’ll get back to that later. Let’s focus back on our topic for now.
So, we’ve seen that the idea of a consequence is kind of a sub-category of the basic idea of following (one thing coming after another thing). And so it’s no wonder that the second meaning of die Folge, which is probably actually the more important one, is consequence. Or result, or ramification or outcome… the translations vary, but the idea is the same.

  • Rückenprobleme sind oft eine Folge von zu langem Sitzen.
  • Back problem are often the result of sitting too long.
  • Die Experten sind sich über die Folgen von Brexit nicht einig.
  • Experts have split opinions about the ramifications/consequences of Brexit.
  • Die Kuchenattacke auf den Kandidaten bleibt folgenlos, weil er, wie er sagt, Käsekuchen liebt.
  • The cake attack on the candidate remains without consequences because he loves cheesecake as he claims.
  • Der Coach macht einen folgenschweren Fehler.
  • The coach makes a grave mistake. (lit.: “heavy in consequences”)
  • Da sie ihren Kredit nicht bedienen konnten, mussten viele Menschen ihr Haus verkaufen, was einen Verfall der Immobilienpreise zur Folge hatte.
  • Because they couldn’t pay their mortgage many people had to sell their house which led to a price slump./which caused a price slump.

Cool.
There are a few really common, useful related words so let’s look at some examples for those, too. And there, we see all the related ideas we had: so to follow in a narrow sense, the broader sense of one after another, that logic-deduction stuff and the idea of a consequences. They’re a little tiny bit stiff, but you can still find them in daily speech. And they definitely look really good in writing assignments.

  • Dem Einstufungstest zufolge bin ich B1.
  • According to the placement test I’m at B1-level.
  • Ich bin folgendermaßen vorgegangen.
  • I did this/proceeded as follows.
  • Ich muss heute leider bis 10 arbeiten und könnte demzufolge frühestens halb 11 bei dir sein.
  • Unfortunately, I’ll have to work till 10, and so/thus I can’t be at your place any earlier than half past 10.
  • Mein Bier ist nicht mehr da. Folglich muss es jemand getrunken haben.
  • My beer is gone. So someone must have drunk it.
  • Aber du hast es nie probiert. Du  kannst folglich nicht wissen, ob du wirklich nicht auf Fleisch verzichten könntest.
  • But you never tried. So you can’t say whether you’d be able to say no to meat.

In case you’re now wondering if folglich is an alternative for German also, then you’re right. You could also use German also in the last two examples. And if you’re wondering WHY folglich means that… well, that’s a specific angle of the basic one after another idea of the folgen. You have facts and from them you deduce a new step. A follow up step if you will. We had that earlier already, remember? There was this one example with A and B and the unicorn and nothing made sense. If you don’t remember it, that’s okay. We’ve actually done quite a lot already and concentration is slipping.
We were gonna do the prefix versions next, but they’re really interesting and we’ll spend some time with them, so maybe it’s better to make a break here and continue next time.
Now some of you’re like “Boooooooh, there were times when you would have put this into one article you lazy ass.”
Well, yes, but that doesn’t mean it’s good. Like… what good is it if at the end, everyone is utterly exhausted and has forgotten all of the beginning. With the prefix versions and all, I really think it would be too much for one read, so hence the split. And come on… what could be more fitting for an article on folgen than a Folge 2 :)?

So, if you have any questions abou…. what?… I forgot something? The cool history? Oh yeah, right. Let’s do that real quick.

The cool history

So, we talked about the origin of sequence and second for a second – the Latin verb sequi which meant to follow –  and I mentioned that the Indo-European root for that would be worth a look, too… yeah, I think that’s how I phrased it. Well, it is actually so cool, polar bears live there.
Badumm tish.
The root that started it all was the Indo-European *sekw-. And the meaning of that root was something all too familiar:  following. Yes, that’s right, it had that notion from the very beginning.
What makes it so freaking cool, are the words that can be traced to that root. The list is actually pretty large, but the coolest ones in my opinion are social, sign, suit.
Yup, all these are most likely related and they grew out of the idea of following. Can you make the connection :)?
Come on, give it a try. If you want, you can share it in the comments and we can talk about it.
Or of course you can just look it up in the etymological dictionary. Here’s a link to it with the entry of all the words related to the root:

The children of the Indo-European root for “to follow

So, that’s it for today. If you have questions about anything, just leave me a comment. Hope you liked it and I’ll see you next week in Folge 2, with the amazing prefix versions.
Schlöne Tage euch, bis dann :)

continue with “folgen – part 2”

 

** Vocab **

folgen – to follow, come after
folgen aus – to result
(in sense of thoughts and deductions, NOT actual results)
daraus folgt -from that it follows, this implies that

auf etwas folgen – to succeed something/someone

die Folge – the consequence, the repercussion, episode
folgenschwer – of serious consequences
folgenreich – rich in consequences

etwas zur Folge haben – have as repercussion
folgenlos – without consequences
[blah] mal in Folge – [blah] times in a row
folglich – so, thus
demzufolge – as a consequence of that, thus, also: according to that
infolgedessen – as a consequence, consequently
[blah] zufolge – according to [blah]

die Reihenfolge – the order (in sense of sequence)

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david_l
david_l
18 days ago

From what I understand these are interchangeable in meaning:

Den Eichhörnchen folgten die Einhörner als Herrscher des Waldes.

Auf die Eichhörnchen folgten die Einhörner als Herrscher des Waldes.

Does any one construction sound better than the other?

Claire
Claire
8 months ago

Hi Emanuel

Is there a difference between folgendermaßen and wie folgt?

If not do you recommend one over the other?

Thanks

AlexP1960
AlexP1960
1 year ago

Emanuel, could you you explain why is “nicht” before auf Fleisch required please?

  • Aber du hast es nie probiert. Du kannst folglich nicht wissen, ob du wirklich nicht auf Fleisch verzichten könntest.
AlexP1960
AlexP1960
1 year ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Thank you! Actually I meant why you need “nicht” in that sentence it all, but now I see that was a silly question.

Anonymous
Anonymous
2 years ago

I never would have thought that social and suit have anything in common. Really neat! It’s kind of abstract but I guess the basic idea is a group of people or things are following a pattern. I was doing some googling and it looks like the Spanish verbs for teach and mean (enseñar, significar) come from the same root. Which I think makes sense when you think of follow in the sense of to understand. Especially for teaching.
 
Also folglich is a charmingly precise way of saying also. Kind of like if therefore had a less formal cousin, maybe :)

coleussanctus
coleussanctus
2 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Yeah, I wrote so at first, the English so, and then I changed it. I couldn’t figure out which way was less confusing. Easier if I just got up the courage to write in German. (That was me btw, I just didn’t realize I was logged out.)

coleussanctus
coleussanctus
2 years ago
Reply to  coleussanctus

Kind of like also is the basic version and folglich is maybe not totally formal (?) but it seems like a step or two up. It makes me smile because I use therefore a lot in my line of work. Sometimes I use it jokingly with friends, but you really have to change your tone so it doesn’t sound too stuck up. I feel like if there was an English equivalent of folglich, it would come in handy.

coleussanctus
coleussanctus
2 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Yeah, that makes sense :) But I think this would work?
 
Das Einhorn hat keinen Führerschein. Folglich darf es nicht Auto fahren.
 
Wouldn’t get me high grades on a thesis, but I could plug in “as a consequence” in English and it doesn’t fall apart.

Anonymous
Anonymous
4 years ago

Hey Emanuel , does word ‘erfolgen’ also works on similar line ,could you explain please with an example

Anonymous
Anonymous
5 years ago

Danke, Person243, “das” is my “missing link”!! Das hilft viel.

I’m finally working my way, slowly, through the online course here. My learning is almost all informal, so I’m missing lots of grammar!

Danke alle, noch mal! :)
Camille713

berlingrabers
5 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

“Sehr” is kind of tricky in general for us. It just seems to mean “very,” but you can’t use “very” like you use “sehr” in “das hilft sehr,” and “very” is one of those modifiers you sort of get trained in school to avoid, especially in writing, because it’s so bland. (E.g., don’t say “very hot,” say “scorching” or “blazing” etc.) It’s kind of like the passive voice – you have to get used to it being way more common and acceptable in German.

khalilof
khalilof
5 years ago

The best German learning Blog ever !

Ich lerne zu viel hier und demzufolge schreibe ich ein Kommentar.

Danke!!!

Anonymous
Anonymous
5 years ago

“Und sehe ich” diene Korrekturen??

person243
person243
5 years ago
Reply to  Anonymous

You probably already know that the verb comes second in a German main clause. So “Und sehe ich…” seems to conform to that. But some conjunctions do not count for this system. They so to say do not take space. Some common examples of those are: “und”, “oder”, “aber”, “doch”.
Thus you had it right the first time. “Und ich sehe jetzt deine Kommentare.” Although “Und jetzt sehe ich auch deine Kommentare.” or “Und jetzt habe ich auch deine Kommentare gesehen.” would sound a bit more natural.
I think I know what confused you though. Emanuel corrected you for “Ja, ich bin.” which you thought means “Yes, I am.” And it does, but not in the sense you used it. “I am.” on its own is a statement about being, existing. But here you use it in context meaning: “Yes, I am the one you think.” or “Yes, that’s me.”
These informations that in English the context adds are not supplied in German. You need a kind of pointer. Like “that”. Which connects this nonsense sentence back to the context. So the closest translation is: “Ja, das bin ich.” with “das” pointing to what was said before. And now, that must sound super strange, you can omit the “das” in colloquial tone. That is because the sentence begins with it, and a sentence beginning with a verb that is not a question is idiomatically understood as beginning with “das” or “es”. It’s kind of like saying: “No problem.” instead of “That is no problem.” or “Makes no difference though.” instead of “That makes no difference though.”
Now, you can ask, why not: “Ja, ich bin das.”
Interestingly, that sounds totally wrong, although you only changed the order. For that you might want to read Emanuel’s article about sentence structure and word order. In this case, it is about what is new and what is old information (old comes before new) which matters.

Gia Huy Hoang
Gia Huy Hoang
5 years ago

Dear My Friend,

Just message is no other than the thank-you I want to say to you because of your support. Trust to be told, I have just granted a Free Subscription from Emanuel and his team. I’m aware that some of you have paid more extra mounts and that help me and other people who are unable to finance our study. I really appreciate all of your support. I wish everything best for you

Anonymous
Anonymous
5 years ago

Oops. Und ich sehe jetzt deine Korrekturen. Danke!!

Ja, bin ich: wieder Korrekturen brauchen. : /

Anonymous
Anonymous
5 years ago

Tut mir leid!! Du bringst MICH immer zum Lachen.

Vielleicht, manch mal, du kannst mir/mich unterrichten.

Mike
Mike
5 years ago
Reply to  Anonymous

“Vielleicht, manch mal, du kannst mir/mich unterrichten. ”

Du meinst sicher:

Vielleicht kannst Du mal (im Sinne von “irgendwann einmal”) die Verwendung von “mir und mich” unterrichten/erklären/behandeln.

person243
person243
5 years ago

Have I ever told you that I do mathematics? You could say that that is a language on its own. And it heavily depends on “folgen”.
There are the mathematical construct of sequences (in German “Folgen”), the implication arrow “==>” which is normally spoken as “es/daraus folgt”, if you want to sound fancy you can say “das impliziert” or if you are really eloquent, you can go with a “wenn…, dann” sentence, but more often you forget the beginning of the sentence by the point you reach the “dann”. And there are of course many “Folgerungen” (conclusions) from each theorem (“Satz”) or lemma (“Lemma”). The fancy word for that would be “das Korellar” (corellary).

In a normal mathematic proof from somebody who doesn’t like to write much and hence uses mostly logical characters, the only real words you will find and which are not jargon are: “es gilt” (and variations; engl.: “it holds (true)”) and variations of “folgen” (here: “to imply”) [Ok, that might be a bit exaggerated. It depends on style. Many people use just for change words like: “damit”, “also”, “somit”, “demnach” and for backwards proving: “da”, “denn”, “weil”, “wegen”]
And something you often want to do is: “folgern” (to deduce) As in: “Folgern Sie aus dieser Ungleichung den Transformationssatz von Jacobi.” = “Argue from this inequality that the Jacobi Transformation Formula holds true.”

And as I am just writing, here are some terminology with “folgen” (you won’t need those unless you study mathematic in Germany, although you can also study mathematics in English here, so, yeah, you won’t need them):

“konvergente Folge” = “convergent sequence” – “the distance to a limit becomes arbitrarily small the further you proceed in the sequence”
“divergente Folge” = “divergent sequence” – “not convergent”
“Teilfolge” = “subsequence” – “sequence which is a subset of another sequence”
“folgenkompakt” = “sequentially compact” – “Here, every sequence has a convergent subsequence.”
“folgenstetig” = “sequentially continuous” – “For this function: If a sequence converges so does its images.”
“Nullfolge” = “null/zero sequence” – “sequence that converges to zero”
“Funktionenfolge” = “sequence of functions”
“Partialsummenfolge” = “sequence of partial sums” (used for series/”Reihen”)
“Cauchyfolge” = “Cauchy sequence” – “sequence whose element’s distance gets arbitrarily small as the sequence processes”

Ruth
Ruth
5 years ago
Reply to  person243

Thank you for that. I was working up to asking about mathematical usage despite having no practical need for such vocabulary in any language. It’s just nice to find out.

The English is actually “corollary” with two Os, and German seems similarly to be “das Korollar”.

person243
person243
5 years ago
Reply to  Ruth

Oh, yes. It’s also “Korollar” in German. I focused too much on getting the “r”s and “l”s in order. :\

vividz
vividz
5 years ago

eine Frage zu “folgenschwer” und “folgenreich”;
Beziehen sie sich beide auf etwas Negatives? Oder kann es auch was Positives sein?

Camille713
Camille713
5 years ago

Du bringst mir immer zum Lachen. ;-) Ja, ich bin. =)

berlingrabers
berlingrabers
5 years ago

I’ve never heard “folglich” – would you use that in conversation? Does it sound sort of ironically high-toned?

For the record, “it follows”/”does not follow” is totally idiomatic in English when talking about logical conclusions. (The Latin “non sequitur” is also pretty common.)

Anonymous
Anonymous
5 years ago

Toll! Richtig, das war genug. Perfekt.Vielleicht ich kann das merken. ;-)

Danke!!!

Du machst mir immer LOL–wie sagt Mann DAS auf Deutsch??