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Dictionary > prepositions

    Here's a quick overview with translations. For family, examples and more check the details.
  • ab
    (preposition)
    1.
    off
    (In the sense of separation.)
    2.
    starting (from)
    (In sense of location and time. More common for time in daily life when talking about a process starting in the future.)
    3.
    downward
    see details >
  • abseits
    (preposition)
    1.
    off, offside, secluded from
    (Goes with Genitive!)
    see details >
  • an
    (preposition)
    1.
    on
    (As in "activated", for devices of all kinds.)
    Opposite (closest): aus
    2.
    toward, to
    (In the sense of addressing something to someone. Main use is for mail and other messages. This one goes with Accusative, because it's a direction. )
    3.
    at, on
    (Putting something on the "side" of another object. Think picture on the wall. Can go with Accusative or Dative, depending whether you talk about "where to" or "where".)
    see details >
  • angesichts
    (preposition)
    1.
    in the face of, in the light of, considering
    (Goes with Genitive. Sounds formal.)
    see details >
  • anhand (von)
    (preposition)
    1.
    with the aid of, by using
    (when you use it without "von", you need Genitive after it)
    see details >
  • auf
    (preposition)
    1.
    open
    (In context of open stores or doors it's by far more common that "offen" in daily life, but it doesn't work well for figurative things like an open mind.)
    Opposite (closest): zu
    2.
    on, on top of
    (It's a two way preposition, so it takes Accusative or Dative.)
    3.
    "a sense of targeting"
    (In many fixed combinations with a verb, that's the idea it expresses.)
    see details >
  • aus
    (preposition)
    1.
    off
    (inactive)
    Opposite (closest): an
    2.
    out of, from, out of
    (For locations you can enter, including geographical things like cities, countries or regions. Goes with Dative.)
    Opposite (closest): in
    3.
    out of, from, of
    (Same idea of "origin" but for material something is made of. And also in a figurative sense for the "origin" of a deed ("aus Langeweile", "aus Ärger",...))
    see details >
  • bei
    (preposition)
    1.
    at, with
    ("be at a location". In German, it is directly combined with names to express that you're at someone's home. More often than not, "bei" does NOT translate to "by")
    2.
    while, at, "-ing"
    (In the sense of currently doing an activity. A good option to translate the English progressive tense.)
    see details >
  • binnen
    (preposition)
    1.
    within
    (ONLY used for time periods. Fairly common in written German.)
    see details >
  • bis
    (preposition)
    1.
    until
    (Temporal sense.)
    2.
    to, until
    (Local sense.)
    Opposite (closest): von
    see details >
  • bis auf
    (preposition)
    1.
    except X
    (synonymous to "ausser" for the most part)
    see details >
  • diesseits
    (preposition)
    1.
    on this side of
    (Goes with Genitiv. Sounds rather high brow. Also used as a noun for "this world" as opposed to the realm of the dead.)
    Opposite (closest): jenseits
    see details >
  • durch
    (preposition)
    1.
    through
    (For locations. Always takes Accusative. As a prefix, it can be both, separable and inseparable.)
    2.
    also in broad sense of "cause" or "by means of"
    see details >
  • einschließlich
    (preposition)
    1.
    including
    (Only as a preposition and you need to use it with Genitive.)
    see details >
  • entgegen
    (preposition)
    1.
    contrary to
    ("entgegen+Dative" - sounds pretty formal and you don't hear it much in daily life)
    2.
    toward
    (This is used as an adverb or prefix, and comes AFTER the location, for example: "der Sonne (Dative) entgegen")
    see details >
  • entlang
    (preposition)
    1.
    along
    ("entlang" can be used before AND after the noun. After the noun is more common. The noun then gets Dative. With "entlang" in the front, it'd be Genitive)
    see details >
  • für
    (preposition)
    1.
    for, pro
    (The sense of being pro something)
    Opposite (closest): gegen
    2.
    for
    (In the sense of someone being the receipient.)
    Opposite (closest): von
    see details >
  • gegen
    (preposition)
    1.
    against
    (take Accusative)
    Opposite (closest): für
    2.
    around
    (ONLY in context of time of day.)
    see details >
  • gemäß
    (preposition)
    1.
    in compliance with, according to
    (Sounds formal. Can be before and after the noun. After the noun it's less common and ALWAYS with Dative. Before it, it's usually with Dative, but sometimes you can also find it with Genitive. )
    see details >
  • hinsichtlich
    (preposition)
    1.
    regarding
    (Goes with Genitive, sounds a bit stiff.)
    see details >
  • hinter
    (preposition)
    1.
    behind
    (As a preposition)
    Opposite (closest): vor
    2.
    to the rear/back
    see details >
  • in
    (preposition)
    1.
    in
    (For locations. Take Accusative or Dative depending on whether it is destination or fixed location (to where vs where). Also )
    Opposite (closest): aus
    2.
    in
    (In the temporal sense. This one goes with Dative.)
    Opposite (closest): vor
    3.
    in
    (Direct import from Engish "in", in the sense of fashionable.)
    see details >
  • mit
    (preposition)
    1.
    with
    Opposite (closest): ohne
    see details >
  • mitsamt
    (preposition)
    1.
    along with, together with, including
    ("mitsamt+Dat" - sounds fairly high register. Also used with Genitive sometimes.)
    see details >
  • mittels
    (preposition)
    1.
    by means of, through
    (Goes with Genitive and it's not too common.)
    see details >
  • nach
    (preposition)
    1.
    to, toward
    (for most geographical names as well as cardinal directions)
    2.
    after
    (preposition)
    Opposite (closest): vor
    3.
    like, "reminischent of"
    (for comparisons of taste, smell annd sound)
    4.
    according to
    (as a post-position, so it comes AFTER the object which is in Dative)
    5.
    for
    (In many combinations with verbs where "nach" connects the "target". This ties in with "to, toward".)
    see details >
  • neben
    (preposition)
    1.
    next to, besides
    (Two way preposition, so it can go with Dative and Accusative. Originally, it was a combination of "in" and "eben" and meant "in the same layer, from where it became "next to".)
    see details >
  • oberhalb (von)
    (preposition)
    1.
    in the upper side (of), above
    Opposite (closest): unterhalb
    see details >
  • ohne
    (preposition)
    1.
    without
    (Goes with Accusative.)
    Opposite (closest): mit
    see details >
  • seit
    (preposition)
    1.
    since
    (German doesn't distinguish between "since" and "for")
    2.
    for
    (time span)
    see details >
  • seitens
    (preposition)
    1.
    on the part of, by, on the side of
    ("seitens+Gen" - sounds fairly formal. Used in the context of parties, not sides in the sense of location.)
    see details >
  • trotz
    (preposition)
    1.
    despite
    (Followed by genitive, though colloquialy, you might find Dative from time to time)
    Opposite (closest): wegen
    see details >
  • über
    (preposition)
    1.
    over, above
    (NOT "over" in the sense of "ended")
    Opposite (closest): unter
    see details >
  • um
    (preposition)
    1.
    around
    (As a preposition, so in phrasings like "going around the [x]".)
    2.
    "over, down"
    (As a separable prefix - the core idea is that you're somehow turning an entity.)
    3.
    "around, avoiding"
    (As a non-separable prefix - the core idea is that you place or move an entity around another one.)
    4.
    o'clock
    (for the full hour in "street speak")
    5.
    roughly
    (Pretty much only used in the phrasing "um die + [Plural number]".)
    6.
    by
    (Specifically for giving the amount of a rotation, but also used for a few other changes of quantity.)
    see details >
  • unter
    (preposition)
    1.
    under
    (below)
    Opposite (closest): über
    2.
    among, in between
    (For groups of items)
    see details >
  • unweit
    (preposition)
    1.
    not far from
    ("unweit+Gen" or "unweit von+Dat" - only for actual locations.)
    see details >
  • von
    (preposition)
    1.
    from
    (For people, activities and personalized locations (brand names).)
    Opposite (closest): zu
    2.
    of
    (The general theme of origin and possession.)
    Opposite (closest): für
    3.
    from, starting
    (Temporal sense. For giving a range like "Monday through Friday")
    Opposite (closest): bis
    see details >
  • vor
    (preposition)
    1.
    in front of, forward
    (for locations. Two-Way preposition so for a destination it's Accusative and for a fixed location it is Dative)
    Opposite (closest): hinter
    2.
    before
    (ONLY as a preposition, so if it is followed up with a point in time. The other translations are "bevor" and "vorher" or "davor")
    Opposite (closest): nach
    3.
    ago
    (IMPORTANT: "vor" comes BEFORE the time, not after it. IT translates the message of "ago", but it's not the same, functionally speaking. )
    Opposite (closest): in
    see details >
  • wegen
    (preposition)
    1.
    because of
    (Goes with Dative and Genitive, no matter what the books say. It is what it is.)
    Opposite (closest): trotz
    see details >
  • wider
    (preposition)
    1.
    against
    ("wider+Dat" - super rare in daily life as a stand alone)
    2.
    against, contra, reverting
    (As a verb prefix.)
    see details >
  • zu
    (preposition)
    1.
    to, toward
    (For most destinations that you DON'T enter. The main groups are people and brand names. Note that you can well use it for places that you can enter, but then the focus is that you don't really go inside.)
    Opposite (closest): von
    2.
    closed
    (By FAR the standard and way more common than "geschlossen")
    Opposite (closest): auf
    3.
    for
    (In the sense of something serving a purpose)
    see details >
  • zugunsten
    (preposition)
    1.
    in favor of
    ("zugunsten+Gen" - sounds fairly formal. Quite common in context of judges and referrees. )
    see details >
  • zulasten
    (preposition)
    1.
    at the expense of, to the disadvantage of
    ("zulasten+Gen" - Goes with Genitive. The idea is who or what has to carry the negative consequences of something. Not very common and mainly used in context of legal issues.)
    see details >
  • zuzüglich
    (preposition)
    1.
    plus
    ((zzgl.))
    Opposite (closest): abzüglich
    see details >
  • zwecks
    (preposition)
    1.
    for the purpose of
    (Goes with Genitive so yeah... not very common. )
    see details >
  • zwischen
    (preposition)
    1.
    between [X]
    (Two way preposition)
    see details >
  • zufolge
    (preposition)
    1.
    according to
    ("[item]+Dat zufolge" - "zufolge" is a "postposition" so it comes AFTER the thing it connects. )
    see details >


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