What is the Difference – “wissen and kennen”

click picture for creditsHello everyone,

and welcome to another German Word of the Day – What is the Difference Special. Today we’ll look at the difference between

kennen and wissen

A real problem… unless your mother tongue is, say, Spanish or Italian or French or Portuguese. Or Swedish or Norwegian. Or Finnish or Hungarian. Because all these languages have two words as well.
That’s right English. You can’t give German the “Really?? Two words for one thing?“-look this time ;). Anyway, for a native speaker of English having two options for to know is really something to get used so today we’ll look a pretty straight forward way to tell them apart. And if you’re mother tongue is one of the above, you could read it anyway and share in the comments whether that would work for your language as well. Sounds good? Cool.

wissen vs kennen

Wissen and kennen both translate to to know and Old English had two verbs for that, too. There was to know, which is related to the Latin and Greek family that diagnosis and recognize come from, and there was witan which is related to German wissen as well as the family of vision. But then English speakers were like “What a waste… let’s just pick one.” and so they started using to know for everything while witan only got to live on in wisdom and wit. The original distinction was completely forgotten.
But this distinction is very obvious to people who do have two different words in their language, and mixing them up certainly sounds really wrong. And sometimes it might even change the meaning.

Now, of course this question has been asked a million times on the web already. A common explanation you can find is that wissen is about facts while kennen is more about being acquainted with something or someone.
That works fine, but I believe there is a even better, more down to earth way to put it. So I decided to throw it out and then people can just pick what works best for them.

All right. Little bit of groundwork first.
One of the fundamental dichotymon… uhm pairs in language is activities or verbs on the one hand and titties in the other. Oh… I meant entities. Stupid adult auto correct. Now, entities is a pretty abstract word. What I mean by is is simply “things or living beings”. Names and nouns, if you will. Entities just sums it up in one word nicely. Especially in German, knowing which group you’re dealing with in a can be very helpful when it comes to grammar and structure. And it’s also helpful here.
Because a best and easiest rule of thumb (in my opinion) for when to use wissen and kennen is this:

Wissen is for information that is expressed using a verb..
Kennen is for entities

So wissen is for what is going on and how stuff is. Kennen is for the stuff itself.

Kennen for entities, wissen for verb-based information . That’s it. It’s first and foremost a simple matter of phrasing. Does that tie in with the other explanation … the fact vs. acquainted approach? I think it does.

Those two sentence do not mean exactly the same. Suppose, we’re over at a friend’s house. There’s a soup simmering and our friend says:
“Hey try my onion peel soup. It’s a crazy new recipe I’ve tried out  for my food blog.”
In that situation, the second sentence, the one with wissen, states that we already do know how this soup tastes, so there’s no need for us to try it. The first one could also be said after we’ve tried the soup because it can express that we`re familiar with that taste. Like…
“I know that soup’s taste. Reminds me of water.”
So the two versions of to know do kind of express a different types of knowing. Knowing a fact vs. being acquainted with something. But you cannot detach it from the phrasing. You can’t say:

  • Ich kenne, wie die Suppe schmeckt.
  • Ich weiß den Geschmack der Suppe.

Those would sound odd, if not wrong, simply because kennen doesn’t work for with sentences and wissen doesn’t work well with entities. Now imagine yourself talking to a friend about your mean line manager…

  • I know her, I know how she is.

At least to me, the two parts in this statement express basically the same, just with a different phrasing. But with our new system it shouldn’t be a problem to tell which to know is what.

The first one is kennen because her is an entity, the second is wissen because it is a sentence.  Pretty simple. In practice, wissen is used a lot  in context of  questions because questions always have a verb at their core.

  • Ich weiß, wie/wo/wann/was/ob/dass ...

The same with kennen is just wrong even if to be acquainted/familiar would work in English.

Kennen is used a lot with names, and it doesn’t matter whether it’s a person or a song or a CD or a book.

And we cannot say

  • Ich weiß Interstellar…. WRONG

even if we know every second, every line of dialog, every shot, every message of the movie. The sentence would still be wrong simply because Interstellar is a name. An entity.
All right. I hope you got a good first grasp of it. Now let’s get to level two. So far, mixing up wissen and kennen simply resulted in a wrong or at least odd sounding sentence. Now let’s look at an example where either is possible but with a different meaning. A friend comes to you, all tired, and says this.

We could respond using either verb here.

And they do not mean the same. The wissen-version says that I know the content of the statement itself. The fact. So I know that my friend can’t sleep at full moon. I could simply make that one sentence

The kennen-version means that I myself can’t sleep at full moon either. It is kind of  like a short version of

  • I know that problem or phenomenon.

So, here we can see either way of making the distinction… knowing a fact vs. being acquainted with something or simply  wissen for verb based information (here: he is not able to sleep) and  kennen for entities (here: problem). Now, of course this distinction between entity and verb based info is not really a super strict rule so let’s pack our bags and venture out to the blurry edges, where wissen and kennen meet.

Exceptions… sorta

Behold the example :)

  • I know the way.

Based on what we’ve learned, this should be kennen. And kennen is indeed the better choice. But people use wissen, too.

Both sentences can express exactly the exact same thing. The kennen-version has a second notion though. It can also mean that we’re familiar with the way in sense that we’ve gone that way a few times already. We’re familiar with it.
The wissen-version is purely about knowing where we have to go. Here’s another example:

Again, kennen sounds better to me but people do use wissen as well. Both can mean the same but also here, the kennen-version could theoretically express something else. It could mean that we’ve heard that name before, that we’re familiar with the name itself. Like…

  • “I know your name… my friend’s dad is called Hufflepuff, too”

The wissen-version only means that we know how someone is called. So essentially the wissen-versions are purely about how the world is, the  kennen-versions are more ambiguous and can express general acquaintance with a thing. But in these examples they’re usually used just like the wissen-version. So the structural aspect kind of beats the meaning-aspect. If you know a noun, then you use kennen, even if being acquainted is not really the focus.

This is clearly about a fact and still both versions have about the same amount of hits on Google,and I feel like the kennen-version is the more literary one. Now, there are a few sentences out there, where wissen and kennen are both used with a noun, and mean different things.

Kennen would be about knowing the content of the chapter while the version with  wissen is kind of a shortened version of I know which chapter is it?”. So in the end this ties back in with what we had… that wissen works well with all kinds of questions. Now, there’s one more thing we should mention. German does use the phrase nicht mehr wissen a lot where English uses to not remember something.

And that only works with wissen, regardless of whether we’re dealing with verb-based information like in the example we just had, or with a noun.

  • Ich kenne deinen Namen nicht mehr.

The kennen-version would sound super odd and serious… like… “Name! You’ve changed! I don’t even know you anymore.” But on the whole I think going by structure is an easy and pretty fail safe way to decide which one to use. Here it is in a nutshell…

  • I know [that/why/which/if/where/who…] – > use wissen
  • I know [noun]                                                              – > use kennen

All right. So this was a pretty mechanical take on wissen and kennen. Mechanical in so far as that you don’t have to think much about what kind of knowing it is. You just look at whether it is an entity or a statement and you make your decision based on that. Time for a little quiz

  1. I know Maria’s boyfriend.
  2. I know where she met him.
  3. I know how to make cookies.
  4. I don’t know the recipe for cookies anymore.
  5. I know the trailer.
  6. I know the trailer exists.
  7. Do you know the way?
  8. Do you know how to get there?
  9. “I’m tired” “I know
  10. I know the difference between kennen and wissen.
  11. Yes, I know what the difference between kennen and wissen is.
  12. As you know, there are two words for to know in German.

And here are the solutions in ugly yellow… just mark ’em to read ’em

1. kennen   2.wissen   3. wissen   4. wissen   5   kennen   6 wissen 7.  kennen   8. wissen   9. wissen   10. kennen   11. wissen  12. wissen

If you want you can also try to translate all sentences in the comments. And if your mother tongue has two verbs for to know as well, it would be great if you could tell us if this system works for them as well or what other difference there is. And of course if you have any questions about this or if something didn’t make sense, just leave a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.

for members :)

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Albert
Albert

1. Ich kenne Marias Freund.
2. Ich weiß, wo sie ihn traf.
3. Ich weiß, wie man Kekse macht.
4. Ich weiß das Kekserezept nicht mehr.
5. Ich kenne den Trailer.
6. Ich weiß, dass der Trailer existiert.
7. Kennst du den Weg?
8. Weißt du, wie man dorthin kommt?
9. “Ich bin müde”. “Ich weiß”.
10. Ich kenne den Unterschied zwischen “kennen” und “wissen”.
11. Ja, ich weiß, was der Unterschied zwischen “kennen” und “wissen” ist.
12. Wie du weißt, gibt es zwei Wörter für “to know” im Deutschen.

Auch im Spanischen gibt es zwei Verben für “to know” (saber, conocer), und auch im Spanischen gibt es Fälle, in denen beides geht. Wie im Deutschen, sind diese meistens abstrakte Begriffe, wie beispielsweise eine Lösung, eine Tatsache, eine Antwort, die Wahrheit…

Daniel
Daniel

I’m glad you brought up Spanish, it made me think of the Italian pair ‘sapere’ and ‘conoscere’ (which is clearly exactly the same pair). You can say ‘So la risposta’, and ‘Conosco la risposta’ (both meaning ‘I know the answer/response’) but I would choose the first. They give the notions of ‘I’m aware of what the answer is, I hold it in my brain’ and ‘I’m familiar with the answer, I’ve seen it before, I know how it goes etc.’ respectively. Just like in German! Neat!

Picklesbrother
Picklesbrother

Thanks I find the conversation here extremely helpful.

Manuela
Manuela

Thanks again for a wonderful explanation. I am also spanish and I have to say that with this post I have also learned a lot about my own language.

Spencer
Spencer

What about the Scottish use of the word ‘ken’? Does that postdate witan? I’m not scottish but it always seemed like the use was pretty close to german kennen.

leyarn

Italian works EXACTLY the same with sapere (wissen) and conoscere (kennen), so much the same that I have never even pay attention to that. There is only a thing about the possible confusion between “Ich weiß das” and “Ich kenne das” that I find interesting to remark. The meanings of the two espressions are exactly the same as in German, but strictly speaking you can say “lo so” (“Ich weiß das”), but you cannot say, in this case, “lo conosco” (“Ich kenne das”), referring to a situation; you have to say “conosco questa sensazione/problema” (Ich kenne dieses Gefühl/Problem), you cannot skip the object of conoscere, the entity you know. This is one of the (not so) few situations in which Italian is even stiffer than German ;)

By the way…. talking about stiffness…. German is the language when you cannot escape from indirect objects introduced by prepositions (da-words…. your explanation was amazing, but i still have this love-hate feeling towards them) but if you skip THE VERB nobody say anything… Any time somebody says “Ich muss nach hause” or similar, it seems like a bad joke to me ;)

Lourenço
Lourenço

That’s also exactly how “saber” and “conhecer” work in portuguese. :)

Fuco
Fuco

How about:

A: Poiche sono triste non posso dormire.
B: Ah, lo conosco (meaning: I am familiar with that phenomenon, i.e. when I am sad I also can’t sleep)

I find that OK, but I’m not native Italian. Do I really have to say “(La) conosco questa sensazione”?

Paula
Paula

The same thing happens in Portuguese: kennen=conhecer and wissen=saber. I ‘ve never even realized that there is a difference between these two words… Learning another language really makes you understand more your own.

MacFeagel
MacFeagel

That’s right English. Can’t give German the “Really?? Two words for one thing?“-look this time ;).

Doch! :)

Jae Lee
Jae Lee

It would be really good if you post on the topic of -gabe, -trag, -lage family. These really confuse foreigners. For example, I came across at least 5 different word for ‘application’ (e.g. bewerbung, anmeldung, antrag, antragstellung etc.) All the Aufgabe, Auftrag, Anlage things are so confusing..

Thank you :)

Fuco
Fuco

Nice, your system also works in Czech and Slovak

Latin went even further and uses a perfect form of “kennen” for present tense… so when you say in Latin “Novi Marcem” (Ich kenne Marcus), you are really saying “I’ve got to know Marcus”, but a Roman used it with a present force in mind. Using the present tense form “Nosco Marcem” means “I’am getting to know Marcus” (e.g. we’re at a party together and I’m just finding things about him). I don’t know how to render this sense in German. N.B.: Latin, as well as German, doesn’t actually have continuous verb forms.

To express knowing a fact, you’d use “scire”: Scio Marcum equum emisse (I know Marcus bought a horse, Ich weiß, dass Marcus ein Pferd gekaufen hat.)

Now, in Latin, there’s a third word in this group of knowing thing, and that’s “posse”, used to express things like “I can swim”. This in Italian also uses “sapere” (So nuotare), so that gets even more confusing. German uses “können” for this, I believe.

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

Not sure if it works in Russian. The verbs are znat’ (both wissen and kennen) and byt’ znakomym (to be familar). Let’s try.

I know Maria’s boyfriend.
Ya znayu parnya Marii.
Ya znakom s parnem Marii.

I know where she met him.
Ya znayu…

I know how to make cookies.
Ya znayu…

I don’t know the recipe for cookies anymore.
Ya ne pomnyu … (I don’t remember)
Could also theoretically be “Ya uzhe ne znayu…”

I know the trailer.
Ya znayu etot trejler. Ya znakom s…

I know the trailer exists.
Ya znayu, chto…

Do you know the way?
Ty znaesh’ put’?

Do you know how to get there?
Ty znaesh’, kak…

“I’m tired”
“I know“

Ya znayu.

I know the difference between kennen and wissen.
Ya znayu…

Yes, I know what the difference between kennen and wissen is.
Da, ya znayu, v chyom…

As you know, there are two words for to know in German.
Kak vy znaete…

Well, “znaesh'” works in almost all cases.

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

Offtopic. Ich sah mir einige von Morgensterns Gedichte an, dieses war toll:

http://ingeb.org/Lieder/palmstre.html

(Ich zitiere das vollständig, da hier selbstverständlich schon keine Urheberrechte verletzt werden können.)

Palmström, etwas schon an Jahren,
wird an einer Straßenbeuge
und von einem Kraftfahrzeuge
überfahren.

»Wie war« (spricht er, sich erhebend
und entschlossen weiterlebend)
»möglich, wie dies Unglück, ja-:
daß es überhaupt geschah?

Ist die Staatskunst anzuklagen
in bezug auf Kraftfahrwagen?
Gab die Polizeivorschrift
hier dem Fahrer freie Trift?

Oder war vielmehr verboten,
hier Lebendige zu Toten
umzuwandeln, – kurz und schlicht:
Durfte hier der Kutscher nicht -?«

Eingehüllt in feuchte Tücher,
prüft er die Gesetzesbücher
und ist alsobald im klaren:
Wagen durften dort nicht fahren!

Und er kommt zu dem Ergebnis:
»Nur ein Traum war das Erlebnis.
Weil«, so schließt er messerscharf,
»nicht sein kann, was nicht sein darf!«

Ich bin hier auf das mir vorher unbekannte Wort angestossen: Trift. Ich hab zuerst nicht mitgekriegt, was es bedeuten soll. Dabei half mir aber folgende Überlegung:

Schrift <- schreiben
Trift <- treiben

Ach so, natürlich: driving! Und hinzu kommt dann auch "drift".

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

PS: das muss natürlich “gestoßen” sein, nicht “angestoßen”.

berlingrabers

More King James Bible fun: you might come across the English expression “to ‘know’ in the biblical sense.” That’s from Genesis (1. Mose) 4:1 and a few other passages (in the KJV and other literal versions). You could say it’s a… particularly intimate application of “kennen” (German translations mostly use “erkennen”), literally translating the Hebrew ידע, which I believe means both “kennen” and “wissen.” So Classical Biblical Hebrew is another one on the just-one-word-for-“know” list (don’t know about Modern Hebrew).

While we’re on biblical languages, I don’t think New Testament (koine, or “common”) Greek makes a “kennen/wissen” distinction, though there are a couple different normal words for “know”: γινώσκειν, which is related to the whole gno- family, and οἴδα, which is a perfect form of the ordinary verb that means “see” that basically became its own thing. But I think both verbs are used with both meanings.

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

> and οἴδα, which is a perfect form of the ordinary verb that means “see” that basically became its own thing.

Sorta like einsehen?

berlingrabers

Yeah, same sort of shift in meaning, but οἴδα really has (as far as I know) no different nuance of meaning from “kennen/wissen.” It really does just mean “know” – as if “ich habe ihn gesehen” meant exactly the same as “ich kenne ihn” or if “ich habe gesehen, wie alt er ist” meant the same as “ich weiß, wie alt er ist.”

jag041
jag041

Gutes Thema!
Ich habe ein großes Problem mit “wissen” und “kennen” noch nicht gehabt, aber ich könnte sehen, dass es sehr bald passieren würde, dass ich einen komischen Fehler dabei machen würde…
Du kommst schon wieder mich retten… und ohne Bitte auch!

Anonymous
Anonymous

I’ve just read a few entries here and I find your explanations incredibly clear and helpful :)

Just one question about this sentence: Ich kenne/weiß die Lösung.

With the “kenne” version, given that the meaning is basically “being acquainted to/familiar with”, could this perhaps imply “I’ve already seen/read the solution somewhere else”, whereas the “weiß” version means “I’ve just come up with the solution now”?

Anonymous
Anonymous

In Turkish it is both the same (bil-mek) except when you are talking about a person, then it is (tanı-mak) . I always used to have trouble with kennen and wissen but you put it in a great way, now I have no problem distinguishing those two . Danke Schön !

keinekatze
keinekatze

As another commenter said, “I don’t remember at what time the appointment was.” is fine but “I don’t remember when the appointment was.” is probably more common. To add to this, “I don’t remember what time the appointment was.” is also common. The past tense can equally refer to a past appointment or a future one, because an appointment can be thought of as the actual meeting up or as the setting of the time to meet up. If you’re speaking about an appointment in the future, you could use the present tense: “I don’t remember what time the appointment is.” Not sure if this is a regional variation or what, but I would be more inclined to add “for” at the end: “I don’t remember what time the appointment was/is for.”

Ana
Ana

Hey, I’m so glad to be brazilian, the meaning is just the same of the portuguese words “Saber” and “conhecer”. For a little while german was very, very easy to me (: Thaaanks.. I mean, Danke :)

Alex
Alex

My German teacher told us that kennen was to know a noun and wissen was to know a fact about a noun.

She also told me that if you asked me if I knew someone, it would be proper for me to say that I do or don’t, but I have to use the same verb that you used (probably kennen). But what if I know (wissen) that person? Why can’t I say that I know know them? Would I have to say I know (kennen) him AND I (wissen) him?

xedo
xedo

what is difference between beugen/biegen?

Nazar
Nazar

In both Russian and Ukrainian there’s just one verb, though Ecclesial Slavic has two (znati and viedieti). The latter corresponds to ‘wissen’. ‘Viedat’ still makes sense in Russian just as in Ukrainian, but sounds superarchaic, so we use ‘znat’ for both I’d say. Other Slavic languages still keep the distinction. For example, Polish ‘wiedzieć’ and ‘znać’.

mzg147
mzg147

Moreover, I cannot come up with (as native Polish speaker) with exeptions to the rule “wissen – expression, kennen – noun”.

1bestpearl

May Allah gives you every good things :)))..
Big thaaaanks to you :)))..
The German is easy with you ;))).
By the way, I loved how you add quiz at the end of lesson..