What the heck are prepositions

Hello everyone,

and welcome to another rendition of Grammar Jargon. As usual we will explain one grammatical term in “normal” words and today we will take on the question:

“What exactly are prepositions???”

I am sure you have heard the word before and you will probably be able to give some examples of prepositions in English. But could you tell precisely what they actually are? And if so could you tell whether before is one or not? If not you will be able after you’ve finished this article. We will look at their function, their shared characteristics, we will compare German and English prepositions a bit and we will of course see why knowing about prepositions can be helpful. So let’s dive right in. 

Prepositions play an essential role in many European languages and you will find some of them in the top 10 of the most frequently used words for English, French and German (those are the ones I checked). And prepositions are causing A LOT of trouble because they are hard to translate.
The correct translation depends pretty much only on context. One example:

  • I am disappointed in you.
  • Ich bin von dir enttäuscht.

That does not mean that von means in. Actually von does not mean in most of the time… only in this context it does. The fact that it is in in English gives little to no indication what the German construction will be. Why does it have to be that complicated? Of course because anything else would be boring… It would not? It would be awesome? Well, whatever…  we need to deal with it as it is: MESSY.
When you learn a new language, don’t try to hard to find ONE translation for a preposition. German is especially hard because we have a large number of prepositions we frequently use. In French you can get very far with just de and à. Of course there are many more but you won’t need ’em as much.
So try to get the rough idea/ideas a preposition represents as opposed to writing one word in your vocabulary book. I consider myself fluent in English and yet I have huge issues finding the correct preposition at times. So be easy on yourself and do not despair. You will get the hang of it.

Anyway. What are prepositions? The word itself suggests that it is something standing in front of something… PRE-positions… and yes: prepositions do that. But so do adjectives and articles in English and German.
Prepositions are actually just one subgroup of the so called adpositions. Those would be things that stand in front of and or behind stuff (if you wanne know more.. here is the Wikipedia-article but you MUST speak jargon for that one). So apparently the position is not the defining factor…. what all prepositions, postpositions, circumpositions, ontopoffositions and makesomemoreupositions have in common is: their function. On a side-note… I will continue to speak about PRE-positions but it is also valid for the “other-positions”.

Function of prepositions

What prepositions do is expressing relations between things and or persons in or to the sentence. They work like your assistant movie director. You appear on the set and you have all the stuff that will play a role in your sentence hanging around… prepositions help you to organize them and express the relations between them and the story. This is easiest to understand in the local domain.

  • The cup is on the table.
  • The cup is under the table.
  • The cup is above the table.

The prepositions are the only differences between those 3 sentences and they put table and cup in different relations to one another.
Often prepositions work together with the verb to convey whatever you are trying to say. In those cases it might not be immediately obvious that the relations between things or persons is expressed… but in a way it is.

  • I go to the theater.
  • I go behind the theater.
  • I go around the theater.

My location relative to the theater is not fixed here but the preposition still gives you the idea how I am moving by relating the movement to go to theater.

Of course there are not only local prepositions. Another preposition-heavy domain is time.

  • Thomas will stay till midnight.
  • Maria has been waiting for an hour for him to leave.

I admit it is not very obvious which relations are expressed here. The actions are related to a point in time or a duration by the preposition. Different prepositions express different relation of an event or action in relation to time.

  • I will go to London in 3 days.
  • I will go to London for 3 days.
  • I will go to London after 3 days.

Here we have the duration 3 days, and the prepositions relate my action to go to that duration. Now what about this one:

  • Before I go to bed, I (usually) brush my teeth.

Seemingly before is relating something here and would thus be considered a preposition BUT …. I’ll pause to build some gravity…. BUT in this example before is relating 2 actions. We have 2 life action verbs here to go and to brush, 2 full sentences.

  • I go to bed.
  • I usually brush my teeth.

If 2 sentences are related and joined this is done by conjunctions. So the before in that example is NO preposition. A preposition is always followed by a thing or a person it refers to.
Besides time and place prepositions are used in … any other situation pretty much, basically whenever a relation of entities (persons or things) has to be expressed. Here are some more abstract examples.

  • I am against this plan.
  • Grammar is boring to a lot of people.
  • Thomas had an argument with his girlfriend.
  • Thomas had an argument about his girlfriend.

Recognizing prepositions

Now that we know the function let’s take a quick look at the characteristics all prepositions share and then we should be experts already.
All the examples so far suggest that prepositions are small words like of, to, from, by etc. That is not wrong but of course it is not the whole truth. Not all short words are prepositions but more importantly English also considers 2 or 3 word phrases a preposition as long as they do preposition-things… relating things, that is.

  • Thomas had an argument next to his girlfriend.
  • Thomas had an argument in front of his girlfriend.
  • According to the examples Thomas argues a lot.

Me personally, I would disagree with this. To me the preposition in the last example is just to while I perceive according as a form of the verb to accord  . What I kind of “hear” is:

  • It accords to the examples that Thomas argues a lot.

This is probably because I am a German native speaker and German doesn’t really have 2 or 3 word prepositions. German prepositions are always just one word.
But English linguistics see it differently and … why not. Phrases like according to or as of  are so fixed that they feel like one word.

Anyway, there is one thing all prepositions share besides the function: they don’t make sense all by themselves… or in other words… you can not answer a question just with a preposition… except for question asking for that preposition of course ;).

  • Where do you place the cup?
  • On.
  • “Where is the car.”
  • Behind.

Even if you know that it is parked behind the house, this doesn’t feel like a genuine thing to say.  So this is actually a good way to determine whether something is a preposition or not. If whatever you need to categorize can stand alone or does work as answer, it is not a preposition. Let’s look at the word we have looked at before:  before.

  • I want to finish my work before lunch break.
  • I have done that before.

The first before clearly is a preposition. It relates finishing work to lunch break. In the second sentence it stands alone and it still makes sense so the second before is NOT a preposition. It is a temporal adverb, that is a “name” for a point in time Other examples for those adverbs would be today or later.
So as already grazed a word can function as a preposition but it can also act as other word types.  Preposition is thus a label for a word in action rather than the word itself.
Now you may say, that you don’t need to know the word type as long as you understand a word. That is of course true as long as you speak English but when you start to learn a foreign language, for example… hmmm… let’s say German, determining whether something is or is not a preposition can be very helpful.

German and English prepositions – a comparison

As we have learned, in English the same word or phrase can be a preposition at times and something else at others – what matters is the FUNCTION it has in the given situation. As already mentioned this is a bit different in German. You will mostly have different words for different functions.   A nice example for this are wordpairs like hinten and hinter or unten and unter. Many students of German struggle to determine what the difference is, and the difference is the function… one of those words is a preposition and the other is the adverb… you can read more about this in this article.
This is why it is beneficial to know whether your English word is a preposition in your sentence or not. Let’s stick with the word before.

  • Ich will meine Arbeit vor dem Mittagessen fertig machen.
  • I want to finish my work before lunch.
  • Ich habe das schon mal gemacht.
  • I have done that before.
  • Bevor ich schlafen gehe, putze ich mir die Zähne.
  • Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

Before has to be translated differently depending on the function and if you were to mix something up it would sound really strange to the point where it is hard to understand.
You need to know/feel/understand the function to translate correctly.

Another special feature of German is that our prepositions really are ONLY ONE WORD. This is partly the reason why we seemingly have so many. We do have many one word prepositions. But if you make a list of all phrases in English that serve as preposition you will have an equal number. Same goes for French. Seemingly there are just à and de but as soon as you count all the 2 and 3 word phrases you wind up with just as many as in German. After all it wouldn’t make sense that one language would have way more ways to express relations as another. German just has one word for each situation while English and French use combinations of words. Some real life examples:

  • My Bentley is parked in front of my Ferrari.
  • Mein Bentley ist vor meinem Ferrari geparkt.
  • My diamond-studded cup is next to my other diamond-studded cup.
  • Meine diamantenbesetzteTasse ist neben meiner anderen diamantenbesetzten Tasse.

Are prepositions necessary?

Despite the important role prepositions play in organizing the stuff in your sentences, the answer to that question is a clear: NO. There are other ways to do the job and you don’t need to look at some ancient native American language for prove… with those you can prove way more puzzling theories…
Many European languages like Russian, Turkish or Finnish do in varying degree  use another way to do the job. And what is this shining knight which could spare you all the prep-hassle? Yeah it’s your favorite … cases. They do the same thing. Finnish has 6 location related cases. Using a case means adding a certain ending to a word. Let’s say we have cup and house and the relation is cup in house, English uses the preposition in. Finnish just adds an ending to house and that’s it. They say (in translation)

  • Cup is housessa.

Another example… instead of with me they would say this:

  • I am going to the movies… do you want to come me-lla ?

A language usually doesn’t exclusively rely on cases OR prepositions. Also Finnish has prepositions.  Sometimes the same relation can be expressed in both ways. An example exists even in English.

  • Maria‘s car is blue.
  • The car of Maria is blue.

The s in the first sentence is sort of a Genitive case marker and Genitive indicates possession.. also in German.
So you can roughly say that the more cases a language has the less prepositions you will see.
But cases are not the only way to dodge prepositions. Technically you could invent a new verb for ANY movement… for example  to gola is to go to and gota is go around and goni is to go in and so on…

  • I gola library.

This would give you a huge vocabulary but as soon as you use a system and use the same endings for the same direction you will end up with something that is not so far from a preposition… the only difference is that it is written in one word with verb… kind of like these German compound verbs :)… so you see… cases, prepositions, new verbs… it is all sort of the same after all. If you want to express millions of things you need a certain number of tools. How these tools look doesn’t matter… they just need to do the job.

And this concludes this Grammar Jargon section. Remember that prepositions express in what relation a thing or a person stands with the rest of the sentence. They cannot solely answer a question. If a word you thought to be a preposition IS a valid answer,it will not be a preposition in that situation. Thus words in action can be prepositions,words in a dictionary can’t. A preposition is defined by what it does, not what it looks like.

If you have questions or you need me to clarify something, just leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.

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Theo
Theo
1 year ago

the sentence: ich empfehle, dass die Kannichen mehrere Stunden laufen zu lassen. = I recommend that you let the rabbits run for several hours.

why is there no preposition before “mehrere” as in “für mehrere Stunden” ?

Theo
Theo
1 year ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Thank you very helpful!

tkunovac
tkunovac
1 year ago

Hi! I was wondering if you will be doing an article that discusses uses of “bei” – I could not find it. I tried my best to go through the different topics offered on the website.

cmilkman
cmilkman
1 year ago

I’m surprised no one has asked about Wechselpräpositionen yet. I really feel like I’m never going to master them, regarding the choice of dative vs. accusative. I know there’s the rule about change of location vs. static location and stuff, and even how certain ones are always dative when discussing time, but that still leaves so many exceptions to the rule. Some of these prepositions (especially “an” and “in”) seem to take the dative or accusative at random depending on what verb they happened to be paired with. The only way I can think of to learn these is by rote memorization combined with an insane amount of exposure. Alas…is there any article in the depths of your blog that goes over strategies to understand Wechselpräpositionen in more detail?

cmilkman
cmilkman
1 year ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Dankesehr!

mucharabu
mucharabu
2 years ago

Your diamond studded example was funny. I like it.

But constructively, this was a great article thank you! I am a beginner and I need to translate everything I see. You can imagine my confusion when I thought I could use a certain word as a preposition but turns out it was not quite right; I now know that I needed to understand their functions in relation to the translations. Basically, the last part of this post was very useful, thank you.

If you could also link this article to related learning pages for prepositions or verbs as mentioned, it would be helpful too.

Thanks!

Christiandel
Christiandel
2 years ago

Hey there! On the section “Are prepositions necessary?”,
you don’t need to look at some ancient native American language for “prove”
It should be “proof” as of noun. Hope any of this proofreading helps you! Haha

blehtine
blehtine
5 years ago

Thanks for the post. :) As curiosity and an ever-nagging native Finnish speaker, I think the Finnish example is not very illustrative though

Another example… instead of with me they would say this:

– I am going to the movies… do you want to come me-lla ?

I can’t see circumstances where I would use the adessive case when inviting someone like that. We would say something like “Olen menossa elokuviin. Haluatko tulla kanssani/mukaan?”, so we would use a postposition or a particle corresponding to mit or entlang or so there. However, elokuvIIN would then be something like INS Kino. If I understood your syntax correctly, “Do you want to come me-lla” would be something like “Haluatko tulla minulla” which then means pretty much like coming ON me, literally, like riding a horse or so

Lynnyo
Lynnyo
6 years ago

Hi, I am wondering what the difference between ‘etwas beraten’ and ‘über etwas beraten’ is (in terms of their meaning) and what function the preposition ‘über’ serves. Could you help explain the difference and the purpose in using the preposition ‘über’ ?
Many thanks!

Tigger
Tigger
7 years ago

About “of” as a preposition –

This is something I’ve heard very often in Europe (probably because of direct French/Spanish/German translations?) but “the car of Maria” sounds very strange to me. Most often, possessives are marked by the ‘s marker (usable even for long and complex noun phrases), and “of” is used mainly for cumbersome noun phrases (“the citizens of New York, Cleveland, Detroit and Toronto” instead of “New York’s, Cleveland’s, Detroit’s and Toronto’s citizens”) or to add emphasis to either of the two parts. I would normally expect some form of emphasis such as “this car” rather than just “the car”.

This is, of course, completely skirting the argument about double possessives for human nouns – “this car of Maria’s” vs “this car of Maria” (“this car of mine” vs “this car of me”) :P

I’ll stop now – sorry for adding a comment about English on a German blog! :D

Khorchammar
Khorchammar
7 years ago

One fun fact for English natives ant those interested:

“Before” used to be a preposition, as in “bring him before me”

Maybe1day
Maybe1day
7 years ago

I think that for non-German, non-English natives words typically recognized as prepositions (pr adverbs)are strikingly used to change the meaning of verbs, sometimes radically. To look, to look for, …to give, to give in….this is kind of a novelty, but not hard to handle, even though it is weird that the infinitive has to and the line between to look and looking is sometimes not clear. In German, this is taken to new complexities, with these words separating from the root verb sometimes, and coming before rather than after. Would you consider this usage, say, in aufgeben, to be a preposition, an adverb, a suffix or non of the above? As I say this is really much less difficult than knowing that auf is better that mit in one of the comments above, but still… Thanks

estetikyoksunuankara

Beautiful website. Very instructive! I loved the explanations that I could not find in my German course. Thank you so much! You cannot know how much you helped!
However (as an abusive human being) I need a bit more help :). I am so frustrated about prepositions. I got the difference between zu and ins.
But for example:
Why it is “ich gehe auf den Bus”, or “ich gehe auf der Toilette”. Why it is “ich gehe im Supermarkt” but “ich gehe auf der Post”.
I can put one million objects after the verb but do not know if I should put in or auf. There must be a rule or feeling behind that. Post-Kino-Toilette all have doors and Bank-Kino are both building but…I can write more…:))))
Many thanks

Khorchammar
Khorchammar
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

I have to say though, that “ich muss auf den Zug” is perfectly fine ;-)

Khorchammar
Khorchammar
7 years ago
Reply to  Khorchammar

Ok, trolling aside. “Ich muss auf den Zug” is a special, kind of colloquial construct. It implies that you are somewhat running late already and need to catch that train. This is dfinitely dialect, you would only encounter that in southern Germany.

Mary Ann
Mary Ann
8 years ago

Thank you so much for this site… so helpful! I just want to point out the difference between ‘amount’ and ‘number’ in English. Above you say “a large amount of prepositions”; that should really be ” a large number of prepositions” because you can separate ‘prepositions’ into individual units. If you were talking about water, say… or, time, you would use “amount”. Similarly, people often misuse ‘less’ and ‘fewer’. “Less” is used when speaking of something that can’t be divided into individual units… like water, for example. “Fewer” is used for things that can be so divided… like prepositons.
Anyway… thanks again for your site. I love it and have learned alot from you… it.

Mary Ann
Mary Ann
8 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

it would be “have an equal number”… because you can tell one “phrase in English” from another. Saying “an equal amount” is like saying you have an equal number of water, for example. Z’at help?

Jastonite
Jastonite
7 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

I agree with “have an equal number (of phrases)”. “Number/fewer” will address countable items. “Amount/less” will address measured items. The easy way to decide between “number/fewer” and “amount/less” is to see if one can put a number in front of it.

“I have one water” – sounds really bad -> amount
“I have some amount of water”

“I have one phrase” – sounds good -> number
“I have some number of phrases”

Also, see if you can form a question to inquire quantity:

“How much water” – good -> amount
“How many water” – bad

“How much phrases” – bad
“How many phrases” – good -> number

The only tricky situation occurs when there is some unit of measurement in the sentence. Units typically sound like indivisible things.

“I have one cup (of water).”
“How many cups (of water).”

“We have the same number of cups (of water).”
“I have fewer cups (of water) than you.”

But, when comparing measurements, it is correct to use “amount/less”, because we are not comparing the unit itself.

“I drank fewer than 8 cups of water today.” – Sounds OK, but the focus is on the cups
“I drank less than 8 cups of water today.” – Sounds correct, the focus is on the water.

“I spent fewer than 10 dollars today.” – Sounds wrong (at least to me), focus on the bank notes?
“I spent less than 10 dollars today.” – correct, focus on the money.

Wow, I didn’t think this comment would be so long.

Miles
Miles
8 years ago

Hi, I have a question about “bei”

If you say “I can help you with your German” can you use ‘bei’?
For example: “Ich kann dir beim Deutsch helfen”, “Ich kann dir bei deinem Deutschen helfen” etc.

or would you say “Ich kann dir mit deinem Deutsch helfen”

I’m just confused as which preposition is used for such a sentence :/

Also if you don’t mind, I often get confused as to the prepositions used when describing someone “going to a university” as in to attend/physically go and so on.

Miles
Miles
8 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Thank you very much, it is much clearer now. The nuance between ‘disguised’ nouns and ‘bei’ is very interesting :]

alokgarg47
6 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Both above examples are really amazing. Thanks :-)
I have another doubt with ‘bei’ though.
Sometimes we need to use bei when we go to a location too, need’t we? For example,

Ich habe ein neues Konto bei der Sparkasse eröffnet.
Ich bin bei meiner Freundin gefahren.

(Please tell me if I am wrong here.)

Does bei relate to ‘receiving a service from a person’ or ‘having to do with a person and not with the place’?

Anonymous
Anonymous
9 years ago

I have a few questions about German prepositions. Why is it:
“Die Bedeutung von ‘word goes here’ auf Deutsch” rather than “Die Bedeutung von ‘word goes here’ im Deutsch”? Or “in der deutschen Sprache”?

Also, is “Wir gehen ins Kino” and “Wir gehen zum Kino” the same thing?

Last thing – Could you say “Wir gehen an das Kino”?

German prepositions are confusing me very much. Just with the several meanings of “to”, “by”, etc.

Ruben Pulido
Ruben Pulido
10 years ago

Your lessons are very appreciated and I just wanted to let you know that they have helped me a lot. I hope you keep making more because there are my of us who learn much from them.