Word of the Day – “Rücken”

Hello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day. This time, we’ll take a look at the meaning of

Rücken

 

Now you’re all like “Rücken? This topic is  booooooooooooooooooring.” but no, it’s not . A Rücken can be very nice. There’s even an idiom for it

So… let’s take a look at Rücken and I promise you… there’s more to this word that you think.
Most of you probably know it already – der  Rücken means the backBack is an old Germanic word for the back but for some reason it has disappeared from most Germanic languages. They all use a version of Rücken. Now, Rücken is related to ridge and the two words probably go back to the “It’s crazy how ancient it is“-Indo-European root *(s)ker which was about  bending, turning. People called a Rücken a Rücken, because it is where the body bends and because a Rücken, just like a ridge, is slightly curved  … oh and guess where curve comes from by the way. Today, this connection to the idea of bending is long forgotten though, Rücken is just a word that means the back.

All right.
Now, both in German and in English people started using the word for their back in a more abstract, broad sense of “what’s behind us” and before long back had taken up the very general idea of  “turning around“.  Like…  to look back is quite literally to look in the direction of your back, to go back is the same idea, and from there it’s only a small step to to give back, which doesn’t have much to do with actual back anymore. This back that is used with activities is zurück , which literally means “to the back”.

Zurück is (of course) also used as a prefix, there are (of course) MANY verbs with it and the translation is (off horse) not always with back. But the idea is always in there somewhere and I think you can get from context.

All right.
Now, there are also many many nouns and what’s interesting here is that for nouns, at least for most of them, the prefix is just rück, not zurück. Even if they’re based on a zurück-verb. Like… the noun for zurückgeben (give back)and is die Rückgabe. Or for zurückgehen (to go back, to decline/recede) it’s  der Rückgang. Or for zurückziehen it’s .. meh, I think you get the idea.
Besides these verb based nouns there are plenty others like Rückseite (flipside, back side), Rückweg (way back) or die Rücksicht. Rücksicht  literally means “the view backward” and so it is actually the exact same as respect, which combines the back-idea of “re” combined with the Latin root spec… and that root is about looking. But Rücksicht more consideration than respect. Not consideration in sense of pondering something but in sense of showing, acting out of it. Turning down the music at night on a weekday, not walking a red light when there’s children watching, bringing your dog to heel if there’s a jogger coming… all these little moments where you show respect or consideration by going out of your way a little. This is what Rücksicht is all about.  Here are some examples. And note that in German the phrasing for exercising Rücksicht is to take it…. you  “nehmen Rücksicht”

  • Das hier ist sicher kein Japanischer Garten. Nur ein paar Blumen in der Stadt. Aber bitte nehmen Sie trotzdem Rücksicht und lassen ihren Hund NICHT auf unser Beet kacken. Danke.
  • This right here certainly isn’t a Japanese garden – just a few flowers in the city. But please show respect anyway and DON’T let your dog poop on our patch. Thank you.

The last example is the claim for an on-going campaign for more Rücksicht in traffic. Here’s one of their posters ... maaan, some real subtle Photoshop work right there :). They also made some videos and they are really really bad so… let’s watch one. But before we do let’s finish with rücken first.
“Wait, is there much more to say?”, you wonder?
Yes, there is. We haven’t talked about the verb rücken yet…  and it’s totally not what you think it is.

rücken – the verb

In a perfect world rücken  would mean to back. But the world is far from perfect and rücken is far from to back.  It’s even far from the concept of back. In fact, it’s not even related to the word Rücken.  It’s just spelled the same because… confusion.  The verb rücken is related to the English word  rock
This one
!
Wait, no, I mean this o...
oh, never mind. I think it’s this one….
hmmm, still not right… well, then it must be this one 
yeah this is it. The verb to rock originally meant to move gently from side to side. Like what mother with her child. But over time the verb got less and less gentle. Just like the music. Like… back in the day people were rocking (moving gently) to Mozart’s mellow melodies, some 200 years they were rocking (head banging) to Iron Maiden mauling their guitars and the phrase rocking a baby to sleep is kind of funny. But anyways… this loss of gentleness of the verb also happened in German and today, there’s a Ruck which is sudden movement, a jolt and there’s rücken which could be described as:

to mov (something) over small distances across a surface in a stop and go fashion

Man, German… don’t you think this is a little… over-specific? No? Okay… just wondering.
So, rücken is a bit like schieben but way less smooth. Think of moving your kitchen table to the side. It’s really noisy because the legs of the table kind of stutter, rock across the surface. In practice though,the verb is often used in the broader sense of to move slowly … or even just to move. And it’s used for abstract movements, too. Just keep in mind that you cannot really rücken anything that has wheels or slides well because that goes against the stuttering background of the word.
Enough theory though… examples.

Of course, there are also prefix versions of rücken and they’re all in some way about movement.

While not super common, all these verbs are definitely in use and you’ll come across them in spoken and written German. But as long as you know that it’s about movement and not about back you’re good and you don’t really need them to express yourself. Well… except one: verrücken.

verrücken

Verrücken by itself simply means to change the location of something by rückening it. What makes this verb really REALLY useful though is it’s ge-form… verrückt. Why is it so useful? Because it’s the number one German word for crazy. This meaning is not crazy at all if you thing about it… the crazy mind has been moved, shifted a bit, away from normal,

Now, the word crazy is used like crazy in English. Some of the expressions are the similar in German. But there are differences too. Besides real crazy-ness verrückt can express oddness or curiousness. But not extreme-ness. For crazy in sense of extreme I think krass is the better choice.

Wait a second… krass, crazy... could they be related? Let me find that out for you, hold on… hey, can one of you interns look up the background on crazy and krass real quick… yeah…… yeah now. I need it now,so hurry up!…  so … uhm… it’ll take a minute till my …uhm… search engine has the results so we have some ti… oh, there’s a call, well that is just in time: Melanie fromWinooski, Vermont, welcome to the show.
“Hey Emanuel, I have a question about to back.”
Sure, go ahead.
“So .. you said that rücken does not mean to back in sense of backing someone and I was wondering how I could translate that.?”
Oh that’s a good question … I think the most generic option is unterstützen but there are other versions like hinter jemandem stehen so it depends on context, I guess. Oh and there’s one with Rücken, too….  jemandem Rückendeckung geben. This is pretty much to have one’s back.
“Ah cool, thank you so much.”

Oh you’re welcome, thanks for your call.
And by now the result of the little research are here, too. The question was whether crazy and krass are related and it turns out … drum roll…. drrrrrrrrrrrr… dishhhhhh…. they’re not! Crazy is related to a French word écraser, which is about breaking, while krass is related to grease and both words gehen zurück to Latin crassus which meant fat, solid, dense. 
And that’s it for today. This was our look at the word rücken. The noun der Rücken means the back and just like back in English rück is used in all kinds of contexts about reverse or turn around. The verb rücken, related to to rock, is about moving across a surface but in colloquial speech it’s used rather freely.
As always, if you have any questions or suggestions about Rücken, just leave me a comment.
I hope you liked it and see you next time.

Oh and here’s the hilariously bad video of the Rücksicht-campain. The actors are SOOO bad that they over-pronounce everything so I think you might be able to understand a lot.

Vocab:

der Rücken – the back
der Rückenwind – the tail wind
zurück – back (as a direction)
zurückbleiben – remain behind, also “stay back” on a train platform
geistig zurückgeblieben – mentally retarded

zurückkommen – to come back, to return
zurückgehen – to go back, also to recede, to decline
zurückgeben – give back, to return
zurückhalten – hold back (careful there, not the same idea as Rückhalt)
sich zurückziehen – to retreat, to seclude oneself, to go to the back room to ponder
die Zurückhaltung – the restraint (as a behavior)
der Rückhalt – the support
der Rücktritt – the resignation (stepping down from a position)
die Rücksicht – the regard, respect (implies that you act on it)
der Rückblick – the look back, the retrospective
der Rückgang – the decline
der Rückruf – the call back
die Rückrufaktion – the call back (for car parts with a production fault)
die Rückendeckung – the backing
der Rückspiegel – the rear view mirror
das Rückgrat – the spine
rückständig – backward, underdevelopped
rückwärts – backward (as a direction)

rücken -move (small distance, stuttering fashion)
“Rück mal’n Stück” – “Scooch over/Move over a little so I can sit there, too”
vorrücken – move forward (often for armies)
abrücken – move away from (also for armies)
anrücken – colloquial term for “to show up in force”
einrücken – to indent, also: to invade (for armies)

zusammenrücken – move together, also used for getting closer as a group
verrückt – crazy
krass – extreme-crazy’
Das macht mich wahnsinnig – That is driving me crazy.

for members :)

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berlingrabers

Wegen “krass”: Es gibt auch im Englischen das Wort “crass”, das so viel wie “grob” oder “anstößig” bedeutet.

“Courtesy” wäre auch eine gute Übersetzung für “Rücksicht”.

Peter
Peter

I would use ‘consideration’ or ‘considerate’ for ‘Ruecksicht’.
– I don’t like my neighbor, but I play my music quietly out of consideration of his kid.

I often tell my children : “Please be considerate”. Depending on context, they know what I mean. For example, don’t be loud after your little sister is in bed, or don’t take too big a piece of cake [out of consideration for those who haven’t had any yet], or hold the door open for your grandmother. This seems consistent with the ‘Ruecksicht’ examples you gave.

Anonymous
Anonymous

Thanks for the article.

I’m a little confused on “krass”, though. In English we have “crass” – and both Pons and Oxford list krass and crass as synonyms (however neither list krass as crazy). Whenever I’ve seen “krass” in a sentence I’ve always used the English interpretation – but I’d never use crass in any of the circumstances that you listed above*. If I were to tell someone that their idea was crass I’d probably be indicating that their idea was tasteless, low-class, or inappropriate for the circumstance. I’d use similar adjectives to describe a crass person. I’d also say that if you were describing someone as crass you would be feeling some kind of second-hand embarrassment; their lack of awareness/foresight/care for social mores is almost painful. I think crassness also has something to do with circumstance too, however. For example, to gossip with my mother about a family member in the privacy of my home might only be a little crass, to do the same at a function hosted by the family member in question would be VERY crass. Crass as a more abstract adjective can also indicate something is blatant – but again, for me it’s very negative – I’d say it indicates a lack of awareness,foresight, and class, in addition to being obvious.

I find it interesting in your second(?) example:
“Did you know that Maria made third place at the Iron Man last year?”
“No. Crazy shit.”
Krass seems more like “Wow, way cool, go her!”
Where as to me that exchange sounds more like:
“Did you know that Maria made third place at the “Iron Man” (read: fun run aimed at school aged kids) last year?”
“What, Maria? The 25 year old cross-fitting, protein-shake-smashing, gym fiend is bragging about coming third in a fun run? Ugh, how crass.”

What my very long winded question comes down to is:
Does krass carry any of those connotations? It feels strange that dictionaries are listing krass = crass, when you’re usage doesn’t feel like it reflects the English idea of crass at all. Or is it a young/colloquial thing/recent usage that has removed negative stigma? Or is my interpretation of crass perhaps regional?

Thanks again for all the work on the blog, it’s been incredibly interesting and very helpful.

Thanks

*Australian English – YMMV.

alexviajero
alexviajero

I agree, American English uses “crass” the same way you describe, and really only that way. Always negative, and never in an ironic sense to imply “that’s nuts!” BTW, speaking of the most common way to say “you’re crazy,” I remember hearing the phrase, “spinnst du?” often (though not necessarily directed at me, :))

Tyler Rutland
Tyler Rutland

Good phrase. useful.

MegaMu
MegaMu

I wouldn’t use back and forth in that context at all. I would say it’s €120 there and back. Back and forth is when something goes one way then another way and then back the first way etc, repetitively. Like to and fro. But not like a train ticket. Normally.

jonhurleydesign

I was wondering about the English “to ruck” as in to make creases or crinkles on a smooth surface and how when you rub your hand along your spine it feels all bumpy like its been rucked up. (depending on how skinny you are of course). any connection do you think?

alexviajero
alexviajero

I have never heard of the verb “to ruck.” I don’t think it is used in American English much (if at all); at least I’m not at all familiar with it.

Jon

Yes in British English we say to ruck up which means to crumple up also in rugby there is a ruck or scrum.

alexviajero
alexviajero

Thanks for posting that Youtube clip of the announcer who does the voice-over for Berlin’s U-Bahn system. I rode the U-Bahn to and from (back and forth to :)) work during the 18 months I lived in Nürnberg, and I clearly remember that guy’s baritone voice to this day. (Maybe that guy had a Bavarian accent, because “nächste” in the video you linked to sounds different, more like “nieschte” to my ears, which is maybe more of a Berlin accent?) Back then (early ’80s) there was only one U-Bahn line in Nürnberg, and I had all the stops memorized in order. “Die nächste Haltestelle ….. Hauptbahnhof.” “Die nächste Haltestelle,,,,, Weißer Turm.” “Die nächste Haltestelle ….. Maximilianstrasse.” Good memories.

alexviajero
alexviajero

Probably the closest cognate I can think of is “Rucksack.” In the military, we never said “backpack” but only “rucksack” and I think more people use backpack and rucksack as interchangeable in everyday English now.

Ruth
Ruth

On the court-sy courtesy thing – does Höflichkeit have the same vibe of formality? Since Hof = court I have long supposed so.
Rücksicht is exactly what I’d like large people to have/take before putting themselves where they block a smaller one’s view! There doesn’t seem to be any English word that conveys it so well. …. Hindsight is something completely different.
Did the Rücksicht campaign make any noticeable difference? I was fortunate enough to have a few days in Berlin last year. It seemed that the vast majority using roads and footpaths were admirably aware and considerate of others. Strikingly so.
Rucksack is indeed used in English. I learned it with the “ruck” pronounced like “rook”, but find that many who use it pronounce the first syllable to rhyme with “luck”, which sounds very clunky to my ears. Using “backpack” avoids disagreements.

Ruth
Ruth

Addendum.
Should use phonetic symbols. There are so many variations in vowel pronunciation in English that examples from other words only work for folk who pronounce them as the example-giver does. “ʊ – lax high back rounded vowel” is what I use in “rucksack”, not “ʌ – mid central unrounded vowel”.

alexviajero
alexviajero

Hahaha. Well, if it is any consolation, I’m 6’2″ (189 cm), and I do feel bad for whomever has to sit behind me in a cinema. This is because occasionally (not very often), someone with a bigger head sits in front of me, and so I know how annoying that is. But would you have us poor, blameless, tall souls sit in the very back row at every event? :-)

Simon
Simon

Hi. I am the one who mentioned about translating this contents into korean lately. I have done half of the prefix ‘be’. And here is the link http://blog.naver.com/blackcowboys/220386380099 . But I already have tried Google translation…and it make no sense …..
If you really want to know what I post on that, I could translate into English for you. Anyway thank you again for making this awesome contents:)

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

One important – IMHO – expression is missing, rückgängig machen.

Anon
Anon

Weihnachten rückt immer näher.

Could be

Christmas is inching ever closer.

dieg7s

Small note: What about “Rücktritt”? I guess it’s also related with Rücken and you even used it in one example… but it’s neither marked nor listed with the vocab. Just in case you wanna add it there!

demoneyes136
demoneyes136

If you don’t already have it in one of your False Friends sections, you really should add “Rücksicht” as to the English eye that just screams “Hindsight”. Which of course it isn’t, “Hindsight” being (a quick lookup suggests) either “Nachsicht” or “Rückschau”. Fascinating, and useful to know!