Word of the Day – “reichen”

Hello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day. This time we’ll have a look at the meaning of

reichen

 

And by meaning I mean meanings. Two to be precise. Observe:

Yes, it is. But we could add some more pronoun. Maybe a little er.

I mean… how much damage could such a small little word possibl… OH MY GOD!

  • Does he hand her the salt?

Come on, German… really?
To be enough and to hand is the same word? How could I possible explain that?! You’ve really reached a new level of crazy.
“When all logic seems lost, mind the color of a rose.”
What? Who said that? Is that you, German?
“Yes,it is I. The color of a rose. Mind it!”
Uhm… right, right, uhm.. the color of a rose, that would be… uhm….
“Gee…. Red. Roses are red.”
Ok, so red, still… I don’t get it.
“Jesus Christ, this is getting absurd. Just wake up okay? ”
And so I woke up. I had passed out while reading up on the history of reichen. I continued to read. Turns out, reichen is the brother of …. to reach. And with a little mind yoga, that explains everything. Imagine you’re a caveman and you pass by a tree with a nice, juicy looking apple hanging from a branch about 4 feet above your head. What do you do? Exactly. You grunt. And then you try make your arm and your whole body reeeeaaallly long to get it. That is the very core of these verbs… extending/reaching out (one’s arm). Now, this root is very old and of course it broadened and was used for all kinds of reaching.

I think the original idea still shines through a bit.
Anyway… over time, more changes happened. In English, to reach shifted toward actually getting  the thing. I reach for the apple and I reach it.
German played around a little more and ended up with the two meanings we saw in the beginning. To be enough and to pass or to hand over.The handing over is not that weird. It totally stays true to the “extending the arm”-core and we just need to add the whole giving thing. And the other meaning? Well… if something being enough is pretty much the same as meeting a certain requirement. And that is not that far from …. reaching a target.

In a way, this reichen is  like the English to reach.  It implies success…. just that the target isn’t always specified.

I hope you can see the connection to the reaching :)
Now, reichen in sense of handing over often sounds a bit solemn. It’s not like it isn’t used at all.

But in daily life for normal stuff like a pen or the salt I’d suggest to just use geben.
The other reichen is super common, so let’s look at some more examples for that.

And of course we all want to be able to properly complain in our target language so here’s the fed-up use :).

All right. So… reichen has 3 meanings, to reach (in sense of to extend as far as), to hand (as in give) and to be enough, which is the most common one. And at the very core is a caveman reaching for an apple. Cool.
Now let’s get to the related words and there we come across all 3 meanings.

word with the reach-meaning

The most important one is certainly the verb erreichen, which means to reach. In sense of to get it.

Why does it mean that? Well… the er-  just adds the idea of completion … you reach for it and then you “er-reach” it, if that makes sense.
Next, there’s the word die Reichweiche. Literally, it means reach-width, but English who needs width if there is context ;).

And finally, the weirdest one in this group is der Bereich.

This is the good old be-prefix at work. In our show on the be-prefix we’ve found out that it changes the meaning to “to inflict verbing on something”. Sure, der Bereich is not a verb, but a verb bereichen actually existed a few centuries ago. Originally it was just a variation of reaching, pretty similar to erreichen, but then it was narrowed down to local reaching. And the noun der Bereich is what is left of that. The couch, the lobster-buffet, the  lounge, the minibar… all within the reach of the VIPs. Cigarette smoke reaches every corners of the Raucherbereich and making coffee is totally within the Aufgabenbereich (“reach of tasks”) of the interns.
So …one double espresso, please.
Hey… hey guys, this is no joke.  I really want an espresso. Marc, Alicia, Meagan, Cory… someone please go to the break room and get me one.
Oh and could you bring me a a slice of lemon also.
I have a bit of a headache.

word with the handing meaning

While I’m waiting for my coffee let’s talk about the handing-reichen. We’ve already learned that the bare reichen sounds a bit formal when used as to hand.  Still, there are a bunch of prefix-versions though that are good to know. Einreichen and nachreichen for example are very useful for all kinds of “paper-work, be it a bachelor thesis or an application or something… stuff that you hand in.

And if whatever you have handed in is incomplete… which is usually the case for bureaucrazy-things … then you’ll get a letter telling you what you need to nachreichen.

So nachreichen is the same as einreichen, only that it has the additional idea that you already handed in something.
Then, there is überreichen which is kind of to hand over but it sounds more ceremonial, so the better translation is probably this

When we add an r and make it rüberreichen, then all the ceremony is gone and we’re back at the dinner table.

Rüberreichen is just a colloquial to hand over … maybe it implies a little more distance than geben but whatever. Now, the dinner table is not always in the kitchen. Often it is between the couch and the plasma. And the way into the kitchen can be pretty far.Good thing then to have eine Durchreiche – a window in the kitchen wall. Maybe if we had one in the studio I’d have my freaking espresso by now. Gosh, these interns.
Anyway,a couple of less important ones are  (Essen) anreichen, which is the politically correct term for spoon feeding adults who can’t eat by themselves, and verabreichen which is often used in context of medication and it means basically means to give. Because ver + ab + reichen = to give. Duh!
Okay seriously… I have no idea why this word even exists. But anyway… it’s enough to know that it is something about giving.
And speaking of being enough… let’s move on to our last segment.

words with the enough-meaning

We already mentioned that to be enough or to suffice is the most common use of reichen alone. But there are again a few prefix-versions. The first one is ausreichen and that is really pretty damn similar to reichen.

In this example, they are really interchangeable. But I think ausreichen is a little more about really being enough in sense of having enough material or meeting some requirement. Or the other way around: it is not so much about feeling. So for all the stuff that’s like “I’m fed up”, ausreichen won’t work.

I don’t use ausreichen as a verb very much but I do use it as an adjective or adverb… ausreichend is pretty literally and even grammatically….  sufficient.

It is even a school grade.

Reichend alone… well, based on logic it should mean the same, but it just sounds odd. I’m not even sure I’d immediately understand. Anyways, very similar to ausreichend  is hinreichend but where ausreichend just meets the requirement, hinreichend has a little bit of a buffer. Not really  more than enough maybe  a little more than enough…. I don’t know… just a feeling that I have.

Now, there is also a reichen-word for not enough or insufficient.

Maan, these examples… I really need that espresso ASAP. So… unzureichend, huh? Wouldn’t unausreichend make more sense? Yes. Is there even zureichen or zureichend? No. But that’s just how it is. German is rich in weird words.
“Yes, I am.”
What? Who said that? Is that you again German?
“Yes. And  I have a surprising reveal for you.”
Ohhh … a surprising reveal. That sounds cool.
“Mind the color of a clear summer sk… wait, never mind. The word rich… think about that.”
Uhm… rich is what I’m not. Looks a little like reach. And in German it is… uhm… oh gee… it’s reich, like reichen. Wait, so what’s the connection?
“Well… if  what you have is enough then you’re rich.”
Yeah, true. That makes a lot of sense.
“Do you get the fine irony in it?”
Uhm… no…
“Well, rich is seldom rich enough.”
Uh… I don’t get it.
“Rich people often think they need more.”
Still.. no idea what you’re hinting at.
“Jesus Christ, never freaking mind! Just wake up and check your books.”
And so I woke up. I had fallen asleep again in the library. I continued to read. Turns out that reichen and reich are indeed related at a very basic level. The common root is the super ancient root *reg which meant to be/make straight, to lead. From this comes the branch of reichen with the whole extending idea but also other branches like the whole right- branch (right as in correct) or the rex and royal branch. And that’s where rich belongs to. A king is wealthy and mighty… he is rich. And he has a realm. A “royalm”. Or Königreich in German. If you know the word bishopric, then now you know the connection. And in Game of Thrones, there is a kingdom called The Reach. Queen Margery comes from there. Oh Margery.
And then I woke up. I had passed out in front of my microphone.”I’m awake Steve, don’t panic.”, I said, as my producer ran into the studio.
“That’s enough!!!”
Oh gee… he is pissed. I can tell. But no problem. We’re done here anyway. That was our German Word of the Day reichen. At the core is the idea of extending a hand and it has taken on the three meanings to reach, to hand over and to be enough, the last one being the most common one.
As always if you have any questions about reichen or one of the related words, or if you want to try out some examples just leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.
Gotta go talk to Steve now and apologize. It wasn’t my fault though. I didn’t get an espresso when I needed it… 

 

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Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

Für mich liegt der Hauptunterschied zwischen hin- und ausreichend darin, dass Ersteres hauptsächlich im an solchen Sonderbegriffen reichen mathematischen Bereich verwendet wird, wo beispielsweise eine (möglicherweise von mehreren) nach ihrer Erfüllung zu einem bestimmten Ereignis führende Bedingung hinreichend wäre (im Gegensatz zu einer notwendigen Bedingung, die einzigartig erfüllt werden muss, um ein erwartetes Ereignis zu erreichen). OK, für heute reicht die Mathe ;)

Jim
Jim

Ich bin neulich auf das Wort ‘Durchreiche’ gestoßen, was eine Art Lücke in der Wand zwischen Küche und Essbereich bezeichnet, durch die man Gästen das Essen serviert. Tut hier zwar nichts zur Sache, aber es hat mich daran erinnert, wie mein Großvater früher eine bei ihm hatte, obwohl er allein lebte, also niemanden hatte, dem er das Essen sozusagen ‘durchreichen’ konnte ;)

universeutopia
universeutopia

Thank you for this lession, Emanuel. Could you please explain how one can recall doing an action in German, for example “I saw her dance” or “I saw him put it in his pocket.” Thanks a lot.

Anonymous
Anonymous

Endlich finde ich mein WoD ! Immer toll und reich informierend .
Jetz meine versuche :
1) Im Sinne von “genüg sein: ein untransitives verb ” ;;;;;; Mein Rentegehalt reicht kaum zu leben .
2) Im Sinne von ” geben: ein transitives verb ” ….;; Bitte reichst du mir das Salz .
3) Im Sinne von ” an ziel kommen : ein transitives verb ” : Meine hande reicht nicht an der Decke dieses Zimmer .
Vielen Dank , bis nächtes mal
Ahmad

Anonymous
Anonymous

“Mein Haar reicht bis über die Schulter”
obwohl es mit reichen nichts zu tun hat, wieso hast du hier singular statt plural verwendet? Ich habe gedacht, dass in diesem Zusammenhang man immer plural verwenden soll. Woran liegt es der Unterschied wenn ich “mein Haar” mit “meine Haare” ersetze?

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

> Woran liegt es der Unterschied

Woran liegt es, dass…
oder
Worin liegt der Unterschied…

Anonymous
Anonymous

Nice, in Spanish, “le alcanza la sal” means both “he hands her the salt” and “she has enough salt” because we’re a prodrop language. I’ll make sure to mentally map reichen to “to reach” and to “alcanzar” (alcanzar also means to reach,hmm…) the benefits of being bilingual.

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

Now that I think of it… the same situation obtains in Russian:
enough = dostatochno
sufficient = dostatochnyj
reach, obtain = dostat’ (it’s more complicated, but “to reach”, as in “with the hand”, is one of the meanings)
prosperity = dostatok (that state of being “enough”)

Guilherme
Guilherme

“Herr Connors Erfahrungen reichen vom tadellosen Kopieren von Skripten bis hin zur Zubereitung eines bemerkenswerten Flat White aus Instantkaffee.”

Um Gottes Willen what is that “hin” doing there!? Is there grammar behind that?

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

von … über … bis hin zu … – from … via … through to …

James
James

This (especially erreichen) is a word I’ve always wanted to know better so thanks for yet another nice lesson! One query: the dictionary I use recognises “zureichend”:

http://dict.tu-chemnitz.de/?query=zureichend

I take it from your post this must be extremely rarely used?

Anonymous
Anonymous

•Jetzt reicht‘s. Auf dein Zimmer.
Wieso ‘auf’? Ich habe immer gedacht, dass man ins Zimmer geht.

losie
losie

I love how you disect the language and explain the abstract relationships within it. I find your blog invaluable in helping me understand the mechanics of German. Thank you

Zoe

Ein tolle Erklärung! Dieses Wort hat mich verwirrt, doch es vielleicht nicht so kompliziert ist! (Ist das ein korrektes “doch”? “Doch” ist der König der verwirrenden Worte.)

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

“Ein tolle Erklärung! Dieses Wort hat mich verwirrt, doch es vielleicht nicht so kompliziert ist!

(Ist das ein korrektes “doch”?)”

Nein. Doch ist keine Konjunktion, weswegen du hier keine Nebensatzstruktur verwenden darfst.

“Doch es ist …” wäre korrekt.

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

Doch!

Entschuldigung, ich hätte “keine einleitende Konjunktion” schreiben sollen.

AC
AC

Interesting – this is parallel to the verb “ajunge” in Romanian. That one can be used to mean both “enough” e.g. (“Ei ii ajunge sarea.” or “The salt is sufficient for her.”) but also “to reach” (“El nu poate ajunge la mar.” or “He cannot reach the apple.”; “El ajunge la destinatie.” or “He reaches the destination”.)

It’s kind of interesting that those two meanings use the same word in both languages even though the words themselves look / sound nothing like each other…

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

Also read above about Spanish and Russian.

idiotsavon

As IF I only just discovered this website today! It’s amazing. Thank you so much for sharing your knowledge and insight. It’s fascinating and incredibly helpful. It has never made sense to me to memorize vocabulary from lists arranged by topic area, which was the way I was always taught. Learning the language by learning ABOUT the language is much more interesting and makes the vocabulary easier to remember and make sense of.
Anyway, I don’t know if this has been mentioned elsewhere, but according to Etymonline, the “nough” in “enough” (and therefore the “nug” in “genug”) stems from PIE *nek, meaning… can you guess? … “to reach, to attain”. So yes – “definitely something about the whole concept of reaching” :)

Thanks again for this excellent website. Such a wealth of information for me to catch up on. I’m looking forward to it.

idiotsavon

I don’t speak either, but I did find this: http://www.yellowbridge.com/chinese/sentsearch.php?word=%E5%A4%9F. It seems the same overlap exists in Chinese.

Cutsie
Cutsie

Das interessiert mich sehr… Fremdsprachen sind echt geil, wahr? ;) Sowieso, aber ist ‘making out’ in Deutsch ‘rummachen’ oder ‘knutscheln’ ?

Eve
Eve

American Southerners, especially older ones, frequently say, “Can you reach me that?” or even “Can you reach me that down?” especially for objects that are up high or out of reach. They’ll also use it though just as a synonym for “hand” or “pass” as in “Can you hand (reach) me that?” It’s not really considered proper usage but I’ve heard it all my life. I don’t believe it’s used that way in other parts of the US or at least I’ve never heard it. Of course, I could be mistaken about that, as the country is a big place. This seems somewhat similar to reichen.
Love your blog. You are one terrific “professor”.

Anonymous
Anonymous

This is probably a silly question, so apologies beforehand, but why is it “Wir haben ausreichend Bier”´and not “Wir haben ausreichendes Bier”?

person243
person243

Reichlich Stoff, den Du uns da angereichert verabreicht hast. Thanks.

One prefix that you did not mention, it is not an important one but if somebody reads it and does not know it it might be confusing.
“gereichen”:

“reichen” is one of these few words that still have this old prefix “ge-“. Although “gereichen” is also really old. Nowadays you mostly only use it idiomatic. The most common one I can think of is: “Es gereicht dir zur Ehre, dass …” = “It is a credit to you that …” (literal maybe: “It reaches you to honour that …”)
As this is idiomatic it is difficult to explain. “gereichen” is a more giving “reichen”, but the focus is on the receiving part. You normally don’t use it with an actual subject, just standins like “es” or “das”. And there is nothing that is given (I know that sounds strange but, hey, it is language). The preposition “zu” is here important. It shows the target that you reach by getting from the thing you have done. So in the example above: “it” (what you have done) gets “you” to your target “the honor”. And all the other meanings of “reichen” are intertwined here. To reach something, to stretch yourself (by doing “it”) and handing something out.
Also “Es gereicht” looks like the past participle of “reichen” so don’t let yourself be confused.

Jake
Jake

Sind “reichen” und “langen” meistens austauschbar?

Das reicht mir! Das langt mir!

“Erreichen” und “erlangen” sind ein bisschen unterschiedlich, oder?

Ich habe mein Ziel erreicht. Ich habe mein Ziel erlangt (?).

Alan Evangelista
Alan Evangelista

Excellent post, as always!

Small correction: “Wir haben ausreichend Bier.” translates to “We have enough beer” in English (not “We have enough Bier”).