Meanings

1.
to lay stuff on top
(For pizza or sandwiches for example. The pizza is the direct object and the topping is connected with "mit".)
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2.
to prove, to put down evidence
(You basically lay down evidence on a theory.)
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Opposite: widerlegen
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3.
to take
(For courses and seminars. )
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4.
to take, to occupy, to block
(Block by using. Not very common and NOT for squatting. You'll mostly see the ge-form "belegt". No real difference to "besetzt", except that it sounds less temporary.)
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Word Family

Root: *legh-

The core idea of this root was:

laying, lying down

of course the verbs to lay and to lie belong here, but the root is also the origin of law, lair, ledger, allay and low.  And of lager, which is essentially a German word that means storage.

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