The meaning of “als”

2 meanings of alsHello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day.
This time we will look at the meaning of:

als

Als is one of these preposition-conjunction-congestion-stuff-things, as linguists call them, when they’re drunk.
So we’re in for some heavy grammar. But not to worry for I have participated in a workshop last weekend:

 “Exciting writing – how to engage.”.

And that was well worth the 2 grand I paid for it.
I learned a lot and I will put t to the test today. Psyched yet? Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaawesome guys… let’s dive right in then.

Als is like one of THE MOST useful words… EVER. The German Wikipedia has this list of the most used words in German.
The first 30 words in this list account for 31,8 percent of all words and 50 % of all written German consists of only 207 words.
And do you know where als is on that list? It ranks at number 21!! #wow #jawdrop

And no wonder it is so common.

Als has three distinct main translations: as, when and than.
But with these small words it’s often better to not think of translations but instead in terms of ideas or function.
And als is used for the following three things:

  • als helps us speak about the past
  • als helps us make (unequal) comparisons
  • als  helps us with assignments

Not homework assignments, though. That’d be tremendous. Like “Yo, could you do my German homework?” 
And als is just like “Sure thing! I got you!”
Anyway, what we’ll do now is go over them one by one and see how exactly to use als and which pitfalls to avoid.

als – speaking in past

Let’s say you want to tell at what point in time something happened in the past. Of course, there are plenty of ways to do that but they all can be divided into two categories. The first one is to “indicate” the point in time directly, like in these two examples:

  • When did you buy this Bentley? Last Monday
  • When did my friend call? 2 hours ago.

And the other option is to tell when something happened is by saying what else was happening. Like here:

  • When did you decide to quit your job? When I woke up this morning.

And THATS’ what German als is used for, and that’s what makes it a translation for when.

  • Als ich bei Aldi war, habe ich meine Ex-Freundin getroffen.
  • I met my ex-girlfriend when I was at Aldi.
  • Du hast mich angerufen, als ich gerade gehen wollte.
  • You called me just as I was about to leave.

Using wenn here would absolutely NOT be correct.
“Wait, so wenn is never correct in the past?”
Well, there’s of course an exception.
Als only refers to singular instances. That can be the one moment you came home, but it can also be an extended but singular period. Like your being 18 or your living abroad.

  • When I was 18 ….
  • Wenn ich 18 war… (W to the r to the ong)
  • Als ich 18 war …

     

But if we’re talking abot reoccurring events, so if in English we have something like whenever , then als does NOT work. Then we’d actually need wenn, usually in combination with immer.  Actually, let’s look at the two back to back, that’ll really make it clear.

  • Wenn ich in Berlin war, habe ich immer viel gegessen.
  • Als ich in Berlin war habe ich immer viel gegessen.

The first sentence tells us what always happened on my visits. In the second one, however, the als pinpoints one visit of many and so the sentence kind of sounds like I ate a lot with every meal … during THAT ONE STAY.
So yeah… als is THE translation for when whenever you talk about singular events in the past. Not for the future, not for some weird conditional, not for habits. Just singular occurences.
That’s really the main takeaway.

Cool.
Quick word on the grammar, before we move on… you’ve probably noticed that als is that it is one of those words that don’t get along with the verb very well. Like the verb really prefers to hang out with the rest of itself at the end of the phrase rather than to sit in the vicinity of als.

  • Ich habe in Paris gewohnt. Damals habe ich oft Wein getrunken.
  • Als ich in Paris gewohnt habe, habe ich oft Wein getrunken.
  • I lived in Paris. Back then I often drank wine.
  • When I lived in Paris, I often drank wine.

And that’s it for als and time. Let’s now get to its next function – comparisons.

als – comparing things

Als is also THE word we need to compare things. But ONLY if we focus on inequality. You see, there are two approaches to comaring stuff:

  1. saying that A is or is not as X as B
  2. say that A is or is not more X than B

In case one, we’re making a statement about whether A and B equal or not. In case two, we’re talking about whether they’re unequal or not. And als is used for case two. Als means THAN, not AS.
Let me look for an example… uhm… I need to get to the mall to get new ones soon… damn the only category left is “Horse riding center”… anyway, we gotta put up with this… here you go.

  • “My horse can gallop as fast as yours.”
    “No way, my horse is like twice as fast as yours.”

There is as in the sentence but there won’t be als in the German sentence. I don’t want to get into that right now, I’ll just link you my lesson on comparisons in German below if you want to dive deeper.
Today, let’s focus on als. And I’ll say it again… als means than.
That actually rhymed :).
Anyway, examples.

  • Ponies sind süßer als Katzen.
  • Ponies are cuter than cats. (no, they’re not)
  •  Mein Pferd mag Hafer lieber als Pommes.
  • My horse likes oats better than fries.
  • Die Mähne von meinem Pferd ist viel schöner als die von deinem.
  • The mane of my horse is more beautiful than the one of yours.
  • Reiten ist schwerer als ich dachte.
  • Riding is harder than I thought.

Now, two important notes before we move on:
First, this als does not affect the word order… it basically just replaces than.
And then I also want to stress that the word denn, despite its sound, is NOT a proper transation for than… any more. It used to be, and you can certainly find it in old books but nowadays it doesn’t work anymore. Als does the job alone. They had to cut costs in the comparing department, I guess. Having two words in the payroll is just too expensive. Damn globalization. Anyway… on we move.

als – the third meaning

And I really have no idea which headline to use. The third meaning or function of als is to help virtually assign a role, profession, function or general character to a person or a thing. Sounds complicated but the good news is that in English, this job is usually done by as.

  • Als kleines Mädchen war ich ein ganz großer Pferdefan.
  • As a little girl I was a big big fan of horses.
  • Als Tierarzt muss man sehr viel über Pferde wissen.
  • As  a vet you need to know a lot about horses.
  • Du kannst diese Decke als Sattel benutzen.
  • You can use this blanket as a saddle.

Can you see, what I mean by assigning a role or function?
But that’s not all. This als is actually also used with numbers in a context of a sequence

  • Als erstes füttere ich mein Pferd.
  • Als zweites kämme ich seine Mähne.
  • First, I feed my horse.
  • Then (secondly) I comb its mane.

And there’s still more. It’s also used in a broad sense of assign characteristics.
Now, I know how much you loved the horse-examples, but we need some more realistic ones here.

  • Du siehst aus, als könntest du Schlaf gebrauchen.
  • You look like you could use some sleep.
  • Thomas tut so, als gehöre ihm das Hotel.
  • Thomas acts as if he owned the hotel.
    (the “gehöre” being the conjunctive 1 of  the verb, which we kinda sorta need here because… reasons)

Those of you who have read the article about ob are already familiar with als ob. Als ob also means as if. It’s kind of up to you, if you want to skip the ob or not.

  • Thomas tut so, als gehöre ihm das Hotel.
  • Thomas tut so, als ob ihm das Hotel gehört.

Both versions are correct. But you have to note that in the first one, the one with only als, we HAVEN’T changed the word order. The verb is NOT at the end. If it were, it would sound a bit like a statement about the past. But if you’re now like “Awesome, I’ll always use that one then.” then please also note this weird form of the verb… it’s called Conjunctive One or something, but it’s NOTHING you want or need before you reach C1 level. But technically you do need this if you want to skip the ob.
So yeah… I’d actually say going with als ob is the better choice.
Cool.
So these were the three things we need als for, talking about (a singular instance in) the past, making (unequal) comparisons and assigning “roles”.
Before we wrap up though, let’s go over a few minor things relating to als. Nothing groundbreaking really, just a bit of trivia, if you will :)

some exception…nally fun facts about als

So the first thing I want to point out is that als does NOT mean as in sense of because.

  • As I had already eaten, I just ordered a salad.

Back hundreds of years ago, als was used in these cases but because the past-als meaning is just too dominating, because-als is barely understandable today.
Sometimes,as is somewhere in between reason and time. Then you need to decide what is more important and translate accordingly.

  • As I was at the Supermarket I bought you some milk.

This could be either als or weil/da but I’d say the temporal aspect is really not interesting after all so no work for als here
Cool.
Another thing that’s worth noting is that there is one construction where als actually translates to but. This is the case when but can be replaced by other than. So it is actually connected to the comparing-als.

  • Mit meinem neuen Handy habe ich nichts als Ärger.
  • I have nothing but trouble with my new phone.
  • Der Film war alles andere als spannend.
  • The movie was everything other than suspenseful. (lit.)
  • The movie was anything but suspenseful.

And the last thing that should be mentioned is the combination “als dass” which, at least in past tense, is a fancy sounding translation for the “too X to verb” – construction. Here’s what I mean:

  • The car was too fast to be able to read the license plate.

We could use an um… zu here but at times it is also done with als dass. This als is a comparing als but you need to do some mind yoga to agree with that :).

  • Das  Auto war zu schnell, um das Nummernschild zu lesen.
  • Das Auto war zu schnell, als dass man das Nummernschild hätte lesen können.

I know, I know… you are probably all staring at the three verbs at the end of the second sentence asking yourself how  you are supposed to do that…. well, don’t worry. You don’t need to use this construction actively. I just wanted to mention it for completeness.

And completed we have. This was our Word of the Day als and I have to say … that wasn’t too much grammar after all. We definitely had worse here. Just as a reminder, the three main situations in which you need als are:

  • alswhen/as (speaking about the past) – verb moves
  • alsthan (comparing things)
  • alsas (as if) assigning roles or features – verb does not move when als is alone.

If you want to check how much you remember, just take the little quiz I have prepared for you. And of course, if you have any questions or suggestion or even hate mail, just drop me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.

 

further reading:

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Veen
Veen
1 month ago

Hi! I was watching a Korean musical with German subtitles and these are lyrics to the first paragraph of one of its song

Als könnte ich dich anfassen wenn du nur daran glauben würdest
Als wäre ich fast da
Es schmerzt, weil du dich so unwohl fühlst
Du lehnst dich auf die Traurigkeit zurück

It must be the 3rd use here but I’m not sire what are they assigning a feature to. In English subs they’ve use It feels but nothing in German

Veen
Veen
1 month ago
Reply to  Emanuel

That does help! Maybe they omitted it to make it sound poetic like the original song. Its’s not a normal use then?

It’s definitely not the 3rd one though.

Could you tell me what one could say here in German? The longer version
Ich glaube, ich fühle mich, ich habe das Gefühl, oder so was?

Last edited 1 month ago by Veen
Veen
Veen
1 month ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Thanks! Now maybe if you could make a blog post about (good) German tv shows/ movies, I’d have have to stop learning German from Korean shows

Day
Day
2 months ago

Hallo! Reading this article was very helpful just like everything you post is, although it didn’t clear up the doubt I have, and I was hoping you could help me, so I came across this sentence “Ich habe immer spontan entschieden, wo ich als Nächstes hinfahre” which translated to “I always
spontaneously decided where to go next” does als here mean to?

Day
Day
2 months ago
Reply to  Emanuel

It sort of does but what would it mean in this particular context or is there not enough info to make a connection?

Aves
Aves
3 months ago

Hi! I was translating a poem, and the writer wrote: “lieber uberall sein, als in Wien.” do you think she meant “love is everywhere, when in Vienna” , or “love is everywhere, but in vienna?”

Otavio
Otavio
4 months ago

In the quiz, I didn’t understand why “when I was living in Finland” required the use of als. Since “living in Finland” was a continuous action, not just one occasion, shouldn’t it be translated to “wenn”? Or the “wenn” is ONLY when it can be replaced by “whenever”?

iris_wqq
iris_wqq
1 year ago

Hi Emanuel ,

I‘ve noticed that you used the indicative present tense in the example for “als ob”.

Thomas tut so, als ob ihm das Hotel gehört.

But according to textbook materials, als ob should go with subjunctive—Konjunktiv II , right? So is present tense a colloquial or casual way of putting it?

Thanks a million

Iris

iris_wqq
iris_wqq
1 year ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Kopiert. Vielen Dank!

Anonymous
Anonymous
1 year ago

German is not easy. Spelling in German is, but spelling in English is hard. “Payed” is actually spelled “paid”.

haton
haton
2 years ago

Hallo, a small comment about traducing “alles andere als” by “all but”: I think you mean “nothing but” or “anything but”. All but actually means “almost”.

Aditya Nair
Aditya Nair
2 years ago

So in the first use case of als where you mention that it pinpoints one of many visits unlike wenn which represent all the visits – then if the sentence is said like

when i was in Berlin this time, i ate a lot.

wenn ich diesmal in Berlin war, habe ich viel gegessen.

Is it correct to use wenn with this extra Information added?

Yourjustice
Yourjustice
2 years ago

W to the r to the ong
I see an ARMY here

hietheehither
hietheehither
2 years ago

I feel like it might be good to point at that in

Du siehst aus, als könntest du Schlaf gebrauchen

we are using the Konjunktiv II: könntest.
Someone might miss that, as the article then goes on to talk about the more difficult example that uses Konjunktiv I.

Indeed, I had searched out this article to try to understand the use of als in a couple of sentences I found in some literature:

»Ich weiß. Für dich muss es aussehen, als wäre ich zu weit gegangen. Aber ich kann jetzt nicht aufhören. Noch nicht.«

and

Mein Herz klopft bis zum Hals und mir ist, als müsste ich ersticken.

rodney A. Hickman
rodney A. Hickman
2 years ago

holy shit

that’s complicated

Andreas Gryphius writes in a poem (17th century) in part…Ach! was ist alles diß, was wir vor koestlich achten,
Als schlechte Nichtigkeit, als Schatten, Staub und Wind;
Als eine Wisen-Blum, …et etc.

what does the “als” mean?

Butterbreze
Butterbreze
2 years ago

Please could you help to explain this:
Ich sehe meine Rolle als Brotverdiener
OR
Ich sehe meine Rolle wie Brotverdiener

Ich will das erste Beispiel benutzen – ich denke, dass es richtig ist, aber ich verstehe nicht warum!!??

larapiggz
larapiggz
4 years ago

Hello thank you for this but i still have one question.
what is in fact the difference between als and während?
i’ll give you an example i saw lately
1.ich springe halb durch die wohnung,als ich mir die hose an den beinen hochzerre.
if i used während would it be wrong?
oh btw i saw that in a story and i also heard some things about das historische präsens but i dont know.

5 years ago

Hi It was really great explaination. Undoubtly german grammer ist sehr kompliziert. Aber du machst das einfacher mit deiner guten Humor.
Ich habe viele probleme mit “word order”Canould you give a simple mind map to fix in our brain?

edward
edward
5 years ago

Another excellent post.
So I guess the idea floating around my head that “als” is a contraction of “al das” is just something I invented somehow …

mitosmilitaria
5 years ago

Can Als be implied? For example in “Als Direktor der X”… to be “As Director of X” and also “Director of X”

Mark
Mark
5 years ago

With all due respect Dude. Be it as it may, but your posts can be real tiresome. I mean it, lengthy and tedious and puts one off. I mean can’t you just cut to the chase once`? wouldn’t hurt anybody. Anyway, helpful as always, setting aside my critical observations. Keep it up but shorter if you could.

Neil Morgan
6 years ago

I’m trying to get to grips with “sowohl A als auch B”. What form does ‘als’ take here?

Simon
Simon
6 years ago

When using “als” in comparison does the second object take the dative case? For example is this correct: Die Katze ist süßer als dem Pony.
Also i’d just like to say thanks for writing this blog, it is being very helpful as I have been learning the German language!

Simon
Simon
6 years ago
Reply to  Emanuel

Thanks for the reply. That’s cleared it up!:)

Michael
Michael
6 years ago

Hello,

I am fairly new to learning German and was introduced to Als yesterday. I then found your blog as I wanted to learn more about the rules for its use. One area that is either not covered here (or I missed it) or my German text is incorrect (Menschen) is that Als is to be used for the past when describing a single incident, but Wenn is to be used to describe frequent occurences. For example, “(Immer) wenn ich bei meiner Oma war, gab es Kartofflen.”, “Paul hat mit Touristen Englisch gesprochen, wenn er sie am Strand getroffen hat.” or “Jedes Mal, wenn Paul eine E-Mail von Marie bekommen hat, hat er auf Deutsch geantwortet.” I then asked my teacher what happens if something occurs sometimes or maybe only twice in the past (instead of frequently or always) and she explained to use Wenn. Could you please clarify this for me? Thank you.