leid tun, leider and Leidenschaft – The Family of “leiden”

Written By: Emanuel Updated: October 5, 2023

 

Hello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day. This time, we’ll have a look at the meaning of

leiden

 

Which is something that can happen when you’re trying to learn German  – unfortunately.
But if it happens, then it’s usually because a little “ship” is missing.
And if you’re now like “What ship? And why pink?”

Well, you’ll get all the answer inside, so let’s jump right in :)

The meaning of “leid” and how to use it

The origin of leiden is an old Germanic stem that was about disliking, the same stem that loathe comes from. 
For a long time, leid meant something along the lines of bad(ly) or hostile or loathsome. It’s not used that way anymore, except for one REALLY important phrasing:

  • Es tut mir leid.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

Literally, the phrase once meant “It does loathsome/badly to me” but most of you probably know what the real meaning is

  • I’m sorry.

So, in German, if you’re sorry, you’re basically saying  “something makes you feel shitty”.  It’s a weird way to phrase it, but it wouldn’t be the first time German a weird way of phrasing uses.
Get it? Get it? I just did a verb at the end thing ;).
Anyway, let’s look at some more examples for leid, or better yet, leidtun because it’s basically a prefix verb…

  • (es) Tut mir leid, das zu hören.
  • I’m sorry to hear that.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • “Maan… dieses Projekt macht mich fertig. Jede Woche 20 Überstunden und kein Ende in Sicht.”
    “Boah, das tut mir echt leid für dich.”
  • “Geee…. this project is killing me. Every week 20 hours extra and no end in sight.
    “Wow, I’m really sorry for you.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Tut mir leid, dass ich gestern abend so schlecht drauf war.”
    Das muss dir nicht leidtun. Das ist doch nur menschlich.”
  • I’m sorry that I was in such a bad mood yesterday.”
    You don’t have to be/feel sorry. That’s only human, right?”
    (note that it is “leidtun” … not “Leid tun”)
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Maria hat mir echt leidgetan.
  • I felt bad/was sorry for Maria.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

Actually, the translation doesn’t always have to be to be sorry, but it’s definitely in there, somewhere.

  • Mein Mitbewohner hat meinen Jogurt gegessen. Das wird ihm noch leidtun.
  • The day will come when my flatmate will regret that he ate my yogurt. (Lit.: will make him be sorry)
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Du kleiner, dummer Forentroll,… du tust mir einfach nur leid.
  • You little, dumb forum troll..  I just pity you.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

Cool.
Now, there’s also the noun das Leid. The one original meaning was something like “the bad deed, the harm done” but over time it shifted away from the bad deed to the effect of the bad deed. And so it became the word for woe, suffering.

  • “Die Leiden des jungen Werther” ist ein Buch von Goethe.
  • “The Sorrows of Young Werther” is a book by Goethe.
    (the German title sounds a bit more grave to me… like he’s really suffering)
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid. (common idiom)
  • A trouble shared is a trouble halved.
    (again, the German version sounds more serious)
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Die Leidtragenden der Reform sind in erster Linie die Kleinverdiener.
  • Lit.: The harm-carriers of the reform are primarily…
  • It’s the low-income workers that suffer most from the reform.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

And this idea of suffering brings us right to the verb leiden. Because that means to suffer.

The Meaning of “leiden”

Makes perfect sense, right? Well, technically, leiden is  not related to leid and das Leid at all. Instead, it comes from the same family as English to lead and the original meaning was was simply meant to travel (leading was “to make travel”).  The thing is… it sounded an awful lot like das Leid and traveling and the journey through life in general was full of hardship for many people in the medieval times. So that’s why the meaning of the verb shifted and I’d 99.99% of German native speakers will think of leiden and das Leid as related. And therefore, they are. Because that’s how science works!
Anyways, let’s look at a few examples.

  • Der Cowboy erschießt das Pferd, damit es nicht leidet.
  • The cowboy shoots the horse so it won’t suffer.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Marias Schwester leidet an Depressionen.
  • Maria’s sister suffers from depression.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Die Qualität der Produkte hat unter den Sparmaßnahmen deutlich gelitten.
  • The quality of the Products has suffered/declined significantly under the cost-cutting measures.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Vor allem alte Menschen leiden sehr unter der Hitze.
  • Especially older people really struggle with the heat.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

What’s also really useful is the combination leiden können. Just like the English can’t suffer, it essentially talks about liking. It does work without the negation but it’s way more common with it and you mostly use it for people or habits, not objects.

  • Thomas kann den IT-Menschen nicht leiden.
  • Thomas doesn’t like the IT-guy.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Der Manager kann es nicht leiden, wenn man während seiner Präsentationen Kekse isst.
  • The manager doesn’t like/can’t suffer it when people eat cookies during his presentations.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Thomas und Marias Schwester können sich gut leiden.
  • Thomas and Maria’s Schwester get along well/like each other.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

There’s (of course) also a prefix version of leiden. Erleiden also translates to to suffer, but it talks about sudden suffering in a particular moment and it’s mostly used in context of defeats in sports or strokes.

  • Rund 150.000 Menschen erleiden in Deutschland pro Jahr einen Schlaganfall.
  • Around 150.000 people suffer a stroke each year in Germany.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

And then, let’s not forget about beleidigen. Literally, it means inflict suffering and that’s not too far from the actual meaning to insult.

  • Meine Katze hat mich beleidigt.
  • My cat insulted me.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Die Suppe war eine Beleidigung 
  • The soup was an insult.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Emanuel ist beleidigt, weil die Leute seine Überleitung nicht so gut finden.
  • Emanuel is sulky/sore, because the people don’t like his transition very much.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

Speaking of which:

Roses are red, violets are blue. 
Other leid-words
are cool, too.  

Leidenschaft, Mitleid and other words with “leid”

First up, we have the word leider. Originally, it was the more-form of the old adjective leid in it’s sense of bad. And it was used to sort of reaffirm a statement, like in this very common dialogue from 2000 years ago.

  • “Römisches Bier ist echt leid.”
    “Leider.”
  • “Roman beer is really bad.”
    “Awful.”

Now, if you’re reaffirming a a statement in that way, you kind of feel with the other person. And so it’s not too crazy that leider toward that notion of feeling pity and became the German word for unfortunately.

  • “Italienisches Bier ist echt schlecht.”
    “Ja, leider.”
  • “Italian beer is really bad.”
    “Unfortunately/it’s a pity.”
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Ich habe morgen leider keine Zeit.
  • Unfortunately, I won’t have time tomorrow.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

The word pity actually brings us right to the word Mitleid. Literally, it means “with-suffering” and it’s the German word for pity and compassion.

  • Thomas hat früher ab und zu in Selbstmitleid gebadet.
  • Back in the day, Thomas used to wallow (lit.: bathe)  in self-pity every now and then.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Einhörner kennen kein Mitleid.
  • Unicorns don’t know compassion.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

And you know what? Compassion is actually the literal translation for Mitleid. Com/con- is the Latin syllable for the idea of with and passion … well, passion was Latin for… suffering, or in German Leid(en).
Now many of you are probably like “But wait… passion… isn’t that this good thing, that we all want?!
Well, yes. But do you think the Passion of Christ was something enjoyable? Not at all.
The word passion is really interesting. It comes from the same family as patient, patience or passive and the core idea of that root was enduring, experiencing. The other idea, the one we know today, came in later and started as something like strong emotions, probably inspired by the Greek pathos.
Now, what does that have to do with German?
Well, as we’ve learned, the old passion, the original one would be translated as Leid or Leiden. For the new passion, the good one, the one we want and need for learning German we need the mysterious ship I mentioned in the beginning. The ending -ship. Which in German is -schaft. And passion is die Leidenschaft.

  • Marias Schwester fehlt in der Beziehung die Leidenschaft.
  • Maria’s sister is missing the passion in the relationship.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Schwimmen ist meine Leidenschaft.
  • Swimming is my passion.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Emanuel redet leidenschaftlich gerne über Bier.
  • Emanuel really loves talking about beer.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

  • Thomas und Maria küssen sich leidenschaftlich.
  • Thomas and Maria are kissing passionately.
  • Practice pronunciation – click once to start recording and again to stop

And that’s it for today :).
This was our look at leid, leiden and Leidenschaft. And looking back at it, we’ve actually covered quite a bit of really useful vocabulary, so check out the list below if you need a little reminder. And as usual, if you have any questions or suggestions just leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.

** vocab **

das Leid –  the suffering, the hard ship
das Mitleid – compassion, pity
bemitleiden – pity (slight arrogant touch)
Mitleid haben – sympathize, commiserate, pity, feel for
das Selbstmitleid – the self pity

leiden (an/unter) – suffer (from/under), also: decline (for quality and similar things)
erleiden – suffer something (more event based, leiden is more about continuous suffering)

nicht leiden können – to not like
gut leiden können – to like (soft liking for people)

etwas leid sein – be fed up with something

etwas tut mir leid – to be sorry for something (self caused as well as compassion)

leider – unfortunately, NOT unfortunate!!

die Leidenschaft – the passion
leidenschaftlich – passionate(ly)

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