Word of the Day – “leiden”

Hello everyone,

and welcome to our German Word of the Day. This time, we’ll have a look at the meaning of

leiden

 

Which is something that can happen when you’re trying to learn German – unfortunately. But if it happens, then it’s usually because a little “ship” is missing.
And if you’re now like “What ship? And why pink?”
Well, you’ll get all the answer inside, so let’s jump right in :)

The origin is an old Germanic stem that was about disliking, the same stem that loathe comes from.
For a long time, leid meant something along the lines of bad(ly) or hostile or loathsome. It’s not used that way anymore, except for one REALLY important phrasing:

  • Es tut mir leid.

Literally, the phrase once meant “It does loathsome/badly to me” but most of you probably know what the real meaning is

  • I’m sorry.

So, in German, if you’re sorry, you’re basically saying “something makes you feel shitty”. It’s a weird way to phrase it, but it wouldn’t be the first time German a weird way of phrasing uses.
Get it? Get it? I just did a verb at the end thing ;).
Anyway, let’s look at some more examples for leid, or better yet, leidtun because it’s basically a prefix verb…

  • (es) Tut mir leid, das zu hören.
  • I’m sorry to hear that.
  • “Maan… dieses Projekt macht mich fertig. Jede Woche 20 Überstunden und kein Ende in Sicht.”
    “Boah, das tut mir echt leid für dich.”
  • “Geee…. this project is killing me. Every week 20 hours extra and no end in sight.
    “Wow, I’m really sorry for you.
  • Tut mir leid, dass ich gestern abend so schlecht drauf war.”
    Das muss dir nicht leidtun. Das ist doch nur menschlich.”
  • I’m sorry that I was in such a bad mood yesterday.”
    You don’t have to be/feel sorry. That’s only human, right?”
    (note that it is “leidtun” … not “Leid tun”)
  • Maria hat mir echt leidgetan.
  • I felt bad/was sorry for Maria.

Actually, the translation doesn’t always have to be to be sorry, but it’s definitely in there, somewhere.

  • Mein Mitbewohner hat meinen Jogurt gegessen. Das wird ihm noch leidtun.
  • The day will come when my flatmate will regret that he ate my yogurt. (Lit.: will make him be sorry)
  • Du kleiner, dummer Forentroll,… du tust mir einfach nur leid.
  • You little, dumb forum troll.. I just pity you.

Cool.
Now, there’s also the noun das Leid. The one original meaning was something like “the bad deed, the harm done” but over time it shifted away from the bad deed to the effect of the bad deed. And so it became the word for woe, suffering.

  • “Die Leiden des jungen Werther” ist ein Buch von Goethe.
  • “The Sorrows of Young Werther” is a book by Goethe.
    (the German title sounds a bit more grave to me… like he’s really suffering)
  • Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid. (common idiom)
  • A trouble shared is a trouble halved.
    (again, the German version sounds more serious)
  • Die Leidtragenden der Reform sind in erster Linie die Kleinverdiener.
  • Lit.: The harm-carriers of the reform are primarily…
  • It’s the low-income workers that suffer most from the reform.

And this idea of suffering brings us right to the verb leiden. Because that means to suffer.

leiden

Makes perfect sense, right? Well, technically, leiden is not related to leid and das Leid at all. Instead, it comes from the same family as English to lead and the original meaning was was simply meant to travel (leading was “to make travel”). The thing is… it sounded an awful lot like das Leid and traveling and the journey through life in general was full of hardship for many people in the medieval times. So that’s why the meaning of the verb shifted and I’d 99.99% of German native speakers will think of leiden and das Leid as related. And therefore, they are. Because that’s how science works!
Anyways, let’s look at a few examples.

  • Der Cowboy erschießt das Pferd, damit es nicht leidet.
  • The cowboy shoots the horse so it won’t suffer.
  • Marias Schwester leidet an Depressionen.
  • Maria’s sister suffers from depression.
  • Die Qualität der Produkte hat unter den Sparmaßnahmen deutlich gelitten.
  • The quality of the Products has suffered/declined significantly under the cost-cutting measures.
  • Vor allem alte Menschen leiden sehr unter der Hitze.
  • Especially older people really struggle with the heat.

What’s also really useful is the combination leiden können. Just like the English can’t suffer, it essentially talks about liking. It does work without the negation but it’s way more common with it and you mostly use it for people or habits, not objects.

  • Thomas kann den IT-Menschen nicht leiden.
  • Thomas doesn’t like the IT-guy.
  • Der Manager kann es nicht leiden, wenn man während seiner Präsentationen Kekse isst.
  • The manager doesn’t like/can’t suffer it when people eat cookies during his presentations.
  • Thomas und Marias Schwester können sich gut leiden.
  • Thomas and Maria’s Schwester get along well/like each other.

There’s (of course) also a prefix version of leiden. Erleiden also translates to to suffer, but it talks about sudden suffering in a particular moment and it’s mostly used in context of defeats in sports or strokes.

  • Rund 150.000 Menschen erleiden in Deutschland pro Jahr einen Schlaganfall.
  • Around 150.000 people suffer a stroke each year in Germany.

And then, let’s not forget about beleidigen. Literally, it means inflict suffering and that’s not too far from the actual meaning to insult.

  • Meine Katze hat mich beleidigt.
  • My cat insulted me.
  • Die Suppe war eine Beleidigung
  • The soup was an insult.
  • Emanuel ist beleidigt, weil die Leute seine Überleitung nicht so gut finden.
  • Emanuel is sulky/sore, because the people don’t like his transition very much.

Speaking of which:

Roses are red, violets are blue.
Other leid-words
are cool, too.

Other leid-words

First up, we have the word leider. Originally, it was the more-form of the old adjective leid in it’s sense of bad. And it was used to sort of reaffirm a statement, like in this very common dialogue from 2000 years ago.

  • “Römisches Bier ist echt leid.”
    “Leider.”
  • “Roman beer is really bad.”
    “Awful.”

Now, if you’re reaffirming a a statement in that way, you kind of feel with the other person. And so it’s not too crazy that leider toward that notion of feeling pity and became the German word for unfortunately.

  • “Italienisches Bier ist echt schlecht.”
    “Ja, leider.”
  • “Italian beer is really bad.”
    “Unfortunately/it’s a pity.”
  • Ich habe morgen leider keine Zeit.
  • Unfortunately, I won’t have time tomorrow.

The word pity actually brings us right to the word Mitleid. Literally, it means “with-suffering” and it’s the German word for pity and compassion.

  • Thomas hat früher ab und zu in Selbstmitleid gebadet.
  • Back in the day, Thomas used to wallow (lit.: bathe) in self-pity every now and then.
  • Einhörner kennen kein Mitleid.
  • Unicorns don’t know compassion.

And you know what? Compassion is actually the literal translation for Mitleid. Com/con- is the Latin syllable for the idea of with and passion … well, passion was Latin for… suffering, or in German Leid(en).
Now many of you are probably like “But wait… passion… isn’t that this good thing, that we all want?!
Well, yes. But do you think the Passion of Christ was something enjoyable? Not at all.
The word passion is really interesting. It comes from the same family as patient, patience or passive and the core idea of that root was enduring, experiencing. The other idea, the one we know today, came in later and started as something like strong emotions, probably inspired by the Greek pathos.
Now, what does that have to do with German?
Well, as we’ve learned, the old passion, the original one would be translated as Leid or Leiden. For the new passion, the good one, the one we want and need for learning German we need the mysterious ship I mentioned in the beginning. The ending -ship. Which in German is -schaft. And passion is die Leidenschaft.

  • Marias Schwester fehlt in der Beziehung die Leidenschaft.
  • Maria’s sister is missing the passion in the relationship.
  • Schwimmen ist meine Leidenschaft.
  • Swimming is my passion.
  • Emanuel redet leidenschaftlich gerne über Bier.
  • Emanuel really loves talking about beer.
  • Thomas und Maria küssen sich leidenschaftlich.
  • Thomas and Maria are kissing passionately.

And that’s it for today :).
This was our look at leid, leiden and Leidenschaft. And looking back at it, we’ve actually covered quite a bit of really useful vocabulary, so check out the list below if you need a little reminder. And as usual, if you have any questions or suggestions just leave me a comment. I hope you liked it and see you next time.

** vocab **

das Leid – the suffering, the hard ship
das Mitleid – compassion, pity
bemitleiden – pity (slight arrogant touch)
Mitleid haben – sympathize, commiserate, pity, feel for
das Selbstmitleid – the self pity

leiden (an/unter) – suffer (from/under), also: decline (for quality and similar things)
erleiden – suffer something (more event based, leiden is more about continuous suffering)

nicht leiden können – to not like
gut leiden können – to like (soft liking for people)

etwas leid sein – be fed up with something

etwas tut mir leid – to be sorry for something (self caused as well as compassion)

leider – unfortunately, NOT unfortunate!!

die Leidenschaft – the passion
leidenschaftlich – passionate(ly)

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Emily
Emily
5 months ago

Can you help me understand my husbands last name- Leidenheimer? Can we find a way it’s not depressing?

Pedram
Pedram
10 months ago

Hallo lieber Emanuel
und danke für tollen Artikel

Warum sagt man:
Marias Schwester leidet an Depressionen
Und nicht:
an der Depression

Und
Wann verwendet man dieses Verb mit der Präposition ‘an’ und wann mit ‘unter’
Ist es richtig, dass wenn etwas von außen kommt, dann ist es ‘unter etwas leiden’, und wenn wir von einer Krankheit oder einem Gefühl sprechen, dann ist es ‘an etwa leiden’?
Aber ich denke, es soll komplizierter sein, oder?

Pedram
Pedram
10 months ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Ja, das hilft sehr. Danke!

Du meinst, du kannst “unter ihr leiden”? Was bedeutet das? Sie tut dir leid?
I’m sorry for my girlfriend or I’m fed up with the situation, I’m under pressure

Und eine andere Frage
In meinem ersten Kommentar habe ich geschrieben:
Aber ich denke, es soll komplizierter sein, oder?

Jetzt denke ich “sollte” wäre besser, oder?

Danke

Pedram
Pedram
10 months ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Ja, sehr verwirrend.

Meine Freundin leidet an Depression. – Das ist eine Krankheit

und
Sie leidet daruner? – Warum nicht daran

Pedram
Pedram
10 months ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Vielen Dank

Du bist sehr geduldig

Karen
Karen
11 months ago

Hi – very detailed thx- I was hoping to ask a few clarifications:

  1. which construct do you prefer: Das tut mir echt leid fuer dich vs. Du tust mir leid?
  2. I saw this but can’t figure it out: Ich leide mit dir? Is this some sort of empathy? “I suffer with you”
  3. in a case like this are there any clues as to who is feeling sorry for whom? Marie tut Tom ein bisschen leid.

thanks a alot

Waaaghgames
Waaaghgames
2 years ago

“And then, let’s not forget about beleidigen. Literally, it means inflict suffering and that’s not too far from the actual meaning to insult.”

Even less far if passing by “Aggrieved”; means something very similar to “insulted”.

“Injure” can also mean to wrong someone, -at least if you’re a victorian: “You injure me, sir!”. And in legal terminology it still more or less means “wronged” : -“The injured party”. And if you make hurtful comments you can also wound someone’s feelings.

Annasc
Annasc
3 years ago

Hey I just wanted to ask. Is “tut mir leid” is an equivalent for and enlish “sorry”? I mean the “sorry” which they put in every sentence, fast pronounced, like in these examples :

– So in this picture you can see cats.. oops, sorry, the wrong slide.. you can see our company growth…

– Thomas is so hypocritical.. – He’s actually right here behind you. – Oh, sorry, haven’t noticed.

– Can you [some untranslatable verb]..?
– Ah? Sorry?

Annasc
Annasc
3 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Hah! Interesting how our languages have that in common. In Russia, it is common to insert “sorry” into sentence, too :)
But still, if I want to look like a native German, what do I use? “Entschuldigung” ?

GiacomoBracco
GiacomoBracco
3 years ago

Leiden können works the same way in italian as you can’t stand someone :)

BT
BT
3 years ago

Thank you for your response. As a matter of fact, I don’t know which “leiden” it is. I just happened to see this sentence in a text which is mainly in Latin: “Non vult *sich leiden*.” It’s something about women who are shallow and vain. Any guess would help :)

BT
BT
3 years ago

Hello, I just found your blog and it looks really great. How would you translate if someone doesn’t want “sich leiden”?

Ein kanadischer Deutschlerner
Ein kanadischer Deutschlerner
3 years ago

Hi Emanuel, ich wollte dir sagen, ich bedanke mich für die deutliche Erklärungen, die du hier gibst. Ich lerne jetzt seit 10 Monaten Deutsch und dank deines Blogs konnte ich ganz gut verstehen und mich mit Deutschen unterhalten, als ich letzten Monat in Deutschland war. Wenn ich deinen Blog nicht gekannt hätte, wäre das überhaupt nicht möglich gewesen. Vielen Dank und wenn ich hier einen Fehler gemacht habe (was sehr möglich ist), freue ich mich über Korrekturen.

Mohamed
Mohamed
3 years ago

Haben Sie vielen Dank für diese Mühe! Ich habe die Verbindung zwischen Passion and Leidenschaft gut gefunden. In Französisch ist strak mit gutem Gefühl verbindet. Aber die Geschichte und die Morphologie des Wortes zeigt andere Bedeutung. Die Verbindung auch mit Leid und Reise steht in meiner Sprache Arabisch. Die Reise ist ein Teil der Hölle.

Toranome
Toranome
3 years ago

Ich finde deine Artikel sehr interessant und liebe das drollige Humor darin. Wenn ich als englischer Muttersprachler eine kleine Korrektur vorschlagen darf, würde ich lieber „Der Manager kann es nicht leiden“ als ‘The manager can’t stand it’, denn ‘The manager can’t suffer it’ klingt mir etwas altmodisch.

Im Übrigen habe ich eine Frage bezüglich der Aussprache von Wörtern wie ‘Manager‘. Warum sagen die Deutsche ‘Meneger‘ anstatt ‘Manager’? Und warum sagen sie auf Englisch ‘Epple’ anstatt ‘Apple’?

berlingrabers
berlingrabers
3 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

“Der Mänädjer ist mein Cousäng”

Bob R
Bob R
3 years ago

In the phrase “wenn man während seiner Präsentationen Kekse isst”, I read it as each person eating cookies during his own Presentation. (A very relaxed group, eh?) Is that interpretation excluded somehow?

Mary
Mary
3 years ago

This is brilliant! It really helps to get the feelings behind the words so I shall definitely be checking these posts out regularly.

Jo Alex Sg
Jo Alex Sg
3 years ago

Das hat mir ja groß Spaß gemacht diesen Unterricht zu studieren! I loved the funny voices by the way but I must protest what was said about unicorns: you should watch The Last Unicorn and then you´ll know they are actually sweet, loving creatures! I love them, by the way :-)

Jo Alex SG
Jo Alex SG
3 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Oh yes, indeed, it´s tantamount to eulogy!

Lou
Lou
3 years ago

One usage that I used to encounter often is: Ich bin es Leid. Ich bin es Leid, solchen Quatsch anzuhoeren.

crittermonster
crittermonster
3 years ago

wow! Talk about good timing— i *just* learned (and used) “Mitleid” yesterday, to write a comment about how we feel sorry for our robot vacuum cleaner when it gets stuck under furniture and beeps sadly.

I’m doch not sure I expressed myself correctly on the “gets stuck under…” part. Leo.org suggested “festfähren”, so I wrote: “in dem wenigen Fällen wann es die Möbel hinunter sich festfährt, man hat Mitlied mit das Arme”.

war das richtig?

Jeff Höltzl
Jeff Höltzl
3 years ago

Gibt’s auch ‘Beileid’ für ‘condolences’ auf Englisch?

jonasby
jonasby
3 years ago

Tolle Sachen. Ich mag sehr den Anschluß zwischen leiden und die Leidenschaft.

I second that “to wallow in self pity” is a good phrase. Also “a problem shared is a problem solved” related to the one with troubles :)

kevinnametaken
kevinnametaken
3 years ago

Danke auf ihre Erklärung auf diesem Wort. Ich könnte mich nicht ausddenken, wie es eine Beziehung zwischen “leiden” und “Leidenschaft” gibt, aber die Geschichte dieser Wörter hilft damit. Jetzt weiß ich, dass die Übersetzung von der Zweite tatsächlich richtig ist (zuerst glaube ich die Wörterbuch nicht).

Sid
Sid
3 years ago

Excellent today! Some English thoughts: Die Leidtragenden is more those who bear the brunt of something (or bear the burden). Kann nicht leiden – can’t stand (because it really is stronger than just doesn’t like). And, instead of bathing in self-pity, I recommend using the term wallow – like a pig really rolling in it. I love the connection with passion; I think especially English speakers don’t get the connection between passion and suffering!

berlingrabers
berlingrabers
3 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

It might be stronger in meaning, but I’d say most of us Anglophones would use it even to describe a less serious dislike – “the manager can’t stand it when people eat cookies during his presentations” wouldn’t sound extreme at all. “Thomas can’t stand the IT guy” might mean he absolutely has to leave the room whenever the guy shows up, but it could just as well mean he doesn’t get along with him at all, finds him very annoying, something like that.

Regarding “suffer” in that context: at least for AE, “can’t suffer” isn’t really idiomatic. There’s one idiom that’s close to it:

– Thomas doesn’t suffer fools gladly.

I think you could translate that with “kann nicht leiden” and it would match up pretty well. It reflects an older usage of “suffer” that meant something more like “allow” or “put up with,” as in “Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God” (Luke 18:16 KJV).

berlingrabers
berlingrabers
3 years ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

I know a lot of verses/quotations/phrases by heart for sure. I didn’t grow up with the King James translation, but it’s so embedded in English-language literature since the 17th century that you can pick up a ton of expressions and phrases just sort of by osmosis. I started learning German when I was about 9, so I’d say a lot of the “aha” moments came later when I learned more early modern English. :)