German Word Order Explained – 2

Hello everyone,

and welcome to the second part of our look at the mess that seems to be

German Word Order

And before we get to it let’s do a super quick recap what we learned in part one. (find it here) we’ve learned three things.
Number one:
The rules you can usually find are … not very good. And how could they. Because number 2:
There are no rules. And there’s not one correct order. There’s a default order which is  the result of a fascinating interplay of several forces, pulling the elements in different directions. And the speaker has a lot of freedom to rearrange stuff for emphasis. Problem is that these interactions are  uber complex and dynamic. We cannot really “learn” that.  Which leads us directly to number three:
In linguistics there is the concept of a head of a phrase and we learned that German is at it’s soul a head-final language. You know… like its close relatives Korean and Japanese. They’re head final too.
Today, we’ll find out how this head-final-ness of German can help us explain everything. Well, not everything, but a lot. It’s going to be tough and I’m not saying that every sentence you’ll ever say will be correct. But at least things will make sense. Promise!

One quick word before we start. When they do structure analysis in linguistics they actually use the side sentence form. So instead of analyzing

  • Ich gehe in den Park.

they analyze

  • (Ich sage), dass ich in den Park gehe.

The reason is that position 1 is kind of special, as is the verb in position number two. The real order of stuff is much clearer in the side sentence structure. But it’s a bit unnatural and we want to know how “normal” sentences are built, so we won’t go that far. But we’ll ignore position 1 here for now. It’s kind of special and it would just make things a lot more confusing. I’ll just put a very natural element in there.  I know the legend says that stuff gets put there for emphasis but that is about as accurate as the TeKaMoLo-garbage… oh. Ops… I guess you know my real opinion now.
Anyway, let’s see if head-final is any better.
That’s what she said, by the way.

Head-final basically means knowing what your beer tastes like before you even know it’s a beer.

  • Ich trinke ein kaltes, leicht bitteres, im Abgang ein wenig an Zitronen erinnerndes Bier.
  • I’m drinking a cold, slightly bitter beer reminiscent of lemon in the finish.

The specifics come before the main thing. And all we have to do is to generalize that a bit to get the fundamental principle of German sentence structure:

The more interesting, relevant and defining something is, the later it comes.

This is quite long and we can’t make a cool acronym so we’ll refer to it as … unicorn wisdom. We could call it fundamental principle, I guess, but that term makes me tired and my mouth dry. So… unicorn wisdom. There’s really not much to explain about the sentence itself. But it’s really powerful. Watch.

  • Ich bin  blah blah yada yada yada blah blah gegangen.
  • I went blah blah blah ……
    (the English version nicely shows that English is head-first)

Tadahhh… now we know why the verb is at the very end. Because the verb is the most important, most interesting and most defining part of a sentence. And now we also know why the prefix is at the end.

  • Ich mache das Fenster ____ .

Because besides the verb itself, the prefix is the next most defining part. We can’t even translate the example yet because we effectively do NOT know what’s going on.
So this is head-final at it’s best. And it doesn’t stop there. Next to the verb or the prefix is the element that is most defining, most important for it.
So what say we look at a few examples to get a feel for it.

Getting comfy with it

Let’s take the verb to be.If I walk up to you and say

  • I am

A first question you might ask could be where or what … but certainly not when or why. So if if we want to say “I was in the park yesterday” the most natural order in German is this:

  • Ich war gestern im Park.

while:

  • Ich war im Park gestern.

is quite odd. Not wrong. There’s just a lot of tension because where is much more relevant for to be than when.  So we’d really need a strong context to move around the boxes like this.
Now take a look at this example

  • Ich war müde im Büro.
  • Ich war im Büro müde.

Here, we have where and what (how), both quite relevant questions for to be. And here we can move around the elements WITHOUT creating all that much tension. We’re just shifting the focus.

  • I was at the office, all tired.
  • I was tired at the office.

The first sentence tells us where I was with an added specific about how. The second tells us how I was with an added specific where.
All right. The next example is a little more clear. Here are the parts:

  • trinken
  • ich
  • ein Bier
  • im Park
  • gestern.

Beside the verb and the subject (which we’ll ignore) we have information about when, where and what in here.  And by default the most relevant part is… what. Just imagine I come to you and completely out of the blue I say

  • I drink.

You’d probably ask what. Well, okay…  you might also be like “I’m sorry. Are you going to meetings?”, but anyway. The what is more interesting, more defining than when or where and that’s why in the default order the beer comes final

  • Ich habe gestern im Park ein Bier getrunken.
  • I drank a beer yesterday in the park.

We can move something after the beer. For instance the park. But that would create quite some tension and we’d need a proper context to “hold” the pieces there.

  • Ich habe gestern ein Bier im Park getrunken, (aber nicht in der Bar.)
  • I had a beer in the PARK yesterday, but not in the bar.

And what about time and place. Could we switch them up here? Yes, we actually could

  • Ich habe gestern im Park…
  • Ich habe im Park gestern…

The first version sounds a little bit more natural though. Now, this might sound crazy but I think it’s because for a human being, or for any animal for that matter  location is more important than time. You can see location. If you’re not able to orient in a 3-dimensional space, you’ll have serious problems catching your food or building a house or walking through a door. But you can live without the notion of time just fine. Sure, these days  time is tremendoublah blah blah… language is so old that it would make sense that place has a notch of importance more than time.
It certainly does in the next example which represents a big group of verbs: the  movement verbs. Again, here are our parts:

  • gehen
  • ich
  • am Freitag
  • in den Park
  • zum Trainieren (for a work)
  • mit Maria

Besides the verb and the subject we have when, where, why and how(with whom). And now guess what’s the most important… of course. The where. If I walk up to you and tell you without ANY context

  • I’ll fly.

your reaction would probably be “Oh, where?”. Well okay, you might also be like “Have you been drinking?” but anyway. When we talk about a movement, and also about a position-verb by the way, the most defining thing is naturally the location. And so in the default version of the sentence the park has to come as far right as possible. And in this case, since there are no left-overs of the verb, it’ll be at the very end.

  • Ich gehe  am Freitag zum Trainieren mit Maria in den Park.

We can move one of the other behind it.

  • Ich gehe am Freitag  mit Maria in den Park zum Trainieren.

But that would create quite some tension and again, we’d need a special context for the why to be more important than the where.

  • … in den Park zum Trainieren. Nicht zum chillen.

So.. park has to be final. But what about the rest. The info about  when I go, why I go, and how (with whom) I go. Well… the truth is these elements  are all equal. None is automatically more interesting than the other. It totally depends on my personal focus. And that’s why we can arrange them in all possible orders and we’re barely creating any serious tension or emphasis. Whatever comes later just sounds a bit more defining for the verb.

  • Ich gehe mit einer Freundin zum Trainieren am Freitag in den Park.
  • Ich gehe mit einer Freundin am Freitag zum Trainieren in den Park
  • Ich gehe zum Trainieren am Freitag mit einer Freundin in den Park.
  • (I’ll just skip the rest but it’s 6 in total)

They all mean exactly the same and they all feel perfectly natural. And the emphasis on the later element is really just a nuance here.
Cool.
Now before we go on into trickier territory let’s do one more example. I just told you my theory about how time is generally not as important as place. But in the right context it can be.

  • aufgehen
  • die Sonne
  • in Berlin
  • um 7.

Aufgehen, among other things, means to rise and in context with the sun, the more interesting question is when. Because the sun rises everywhere. But not at the same time.

  • Die Sonne geht in Berlin um 7 auf.
  • The sun rises at 7 in Berlin.
    (English again has the reverse order, because it is head first)

We could say

  • Die Sonne geht um 7 in Berlin auf.

But we’d have some tension and thus a rather strong focus on Berlin as opposed to elsewhere. It’s not wrong, but it’s not the most natural way to say it.
All right.
So I hope you got a first impression of the whole unicorn wisdom-approach. But of course it’s not quite that simple.

Getting less comfy with it

Let’s start right with an example:

  • geben
  • ich
  • einen Kuss
  • meiner Freundin
  • im Supermarkt
  • gestern

In English, we could assemble that to

  • I gave my girlfriend a kiss in the supermarket yesterday.

And in German? Well, the most relevant info for geben is certainly the answer to what. Like… if I said

  • I give

You’d probably ask what. So the kiss should be at the end, right before the verb. Cool. Now about the other stuff. Imagine I walk up to you and say

  • I gave a kiss.

the most natural question would be to whom. So my girlfriend should come right before kiss because the question-test suggests that it’s the next most rele… oh hold on, there’s the solution already.

  • Ich habe meiner Freundin gestern im Supermarkt einen Kuss gegeben.

Oh. Okay. … uhm…. the girlfriend comes kind of prematurely… I mean early. This is weird… uh… and what would happen if we moved her

  • Ich habe gestern im Supermarkt meiner Freundin einen Kuss gegeben.

Uh-huh…. I see. So there’s a slight emphasis there. So both positions seem to work okay and the first one, the one with the early girlfriend seems a teeny tiny bit more natural to me.
This is a bit irritating.
And in fact it’s not only here. Any example where there’s a transfer of sorts will have the receiver rather early in the default order.

  • Ich habe meinem Boss gestern beim Meeting  meine Meinung gesagt…. most natural
  • Ich habe gestern beim Meeting meinem Boss meine Meinung gesagt…. slight emphasis on boss.
  • I told my boss my opinion at the meeting yesterday.
  • Ich habe meiner Freundin vor zwei Wochen zum Geburtstag eine Waage gekauft…. most natural
  • Ich habe vor zwei Wochen zum Geburtstag meiner Freundin eine Waage gekauft…. sounds wrongish
  • I bought a scale for my girlfriend’s birthday two weeks ago.

This raised her eyebrow. And for us it raises some questions. Let’s raise some more.

 Getting quite uncomfy with it

It was stupid idea. The scale. My girlfriend wasn’t amused at all. And so I gave it away.

  • I gave the scale to a friend

It’s just geben and two elements so we should be good, rigtht? We can do that. The scale is the most defining element for geben so the natural order must be….

  • Ich habe die Waage einem Freund gegeben.

WHAT? This is totally the reverse of what I expected. And this is the default? What about the other way around?

  • Ich habe einem Freund die Waage gegeben.

Whaaaaaaat? Tension on friend?!?! I’m really starting to think German is trying to mess with me.
And there’s more. Take this example.

  • Ich habe am Montag im Supermarkt ein Brot gekauft.
  • I bought a loaf of bread in the supermarket on Monday.

This is nothing surprising. The most defining element for buying is certainly the info about what I buy and it comes where it should… at the end. What happens if we move it?

  • Ich habe ein Brot gestern im Supermarkt gekauft…unnatural

This isn’t a surprise either. We have a lot of tension here, which creates a lot of emphasis which only makes sense if we want to contrast the supermarket with something. Like… I bought my bread IN THE SUPERMARKET as opposed to THE BAKERY. But…All it takes to change everything is changing one little word.

  • Ich habe das Brot gestern im Supermarkt gekauft.

Poooooooof. All the tension unnatural tension is gone. The supermarket is the most relevant item here too. It’s at the end after all. But this is the default order now and having das Brot final is the version with unnatural tension.

  • Ich habe gestern im Supermarkt das Brot gekauft.

Everyone would be wondering  … “What bread?”.
And then, there’s of course that thing we’ve ignored all the time. The subject.  I mean… if I just said

  • drinks

wouldn’t be the natural reaction to ask who? Okay, well… I guess the most natural reaction is “Sure thing.”. But you know what mean.
So… at this point I think it’s totally natural to have reservations regarding unicorn wisdom. I would have them for sure. But unicorn wisdom isn’t to blame. It’s us. We’ve made a mistake. We forgot something. Because where there’s light, there is also shadow. Where there’s left, there’s also right. And where there’s late, there’s also early. Everything has two sides. Yin and Yang. We need to find the other side of unicorn wisdom. We have one part of the magical gem. We need the other part. For only together we can unlock their full power. So we shall venture out and meet again…. next week :).
Sorry for pulling a Hollywood franchise on you and making a part 3. I actually wanted to do just one post but that would have been really really superficial. And then I wanted to do just two posts but I am really bad at planning and I think we’ve done enough for today anyway.
I really hope this was not too detailed or too nerdy, so let me know in the comments if it was at least a little bit  helpful.  And of course if you have any questions please bombard me.
So… this was part two of our look at German word order and what we’ve done is… raise more questions than we answered :)
I hope you liked it and see you next time.

If you want to get to part 3, then head over here:

German Word Order – part 3 – “The pesky details”

If you need a break… go to your fridge. There’s a beer waiting.

for members :)

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Lisa
Lisa

I thought if you had a dative noun and an accusative noun that the dative must come before the accusative? As in: Ich habe meinem Freund die Waage gegeben.

berlingrabers

I’m anticipating what I think the explanation will be in part 3…

“Dative before accusative” is one of those things that’s presented as a rule, but it’s not – it’s descriptive rather than prescriptive. What’s more important is, well, which piece of information is more important. And the type of article (definite vs. indefinite) has a bearing on how important its noun is perceived to be in the sentence. If you’re referring to “die Waage,” it’s not new information – it’s obviously something either visible in the real-life context of the conversation, or something that’s already been mentioned (in this case, the one Emanuel bought his girlfriend for her birthday). “Eine Waage,” however, does come across as new information, and that makes it more important. So…

– Ich habe meiner Freundin eine Waage gegeben.

This follows the “dative-first” pattern, but only because what you gave is more important/foundational information than who got it.

– Ich habe die Waage (m)einem Freund gegeben.

If it’s “die Waage,” it’s old news. What’s more important to this sentence is what happened to it after the girlfriend’s-birthday debacle – namely, that Emanuel gave it to another friend (he used an indefinite article, which is more clear-cut).

Another way to put it is that whatever advances your understanding of the situation the most tends to come later. So your sentence:

– Ich habe meinem Freund die Waage gegeben.

…is perfectly grammatical, but it’s communicating that “die Waage” is more important to understanding the situation than “meinem Freund.” You’re saying something a little more like, “It was the scale that I gave to my friend” (rather than, say, the toaster oven). It sounds like maybe more than one gift idea was in play, and the point of the sentence is to tell which one you chose.

Hope that all makes sense…

Vladimir
Vladimir

And what about TeKaMoLo rule? I always come across the Temporal box first…

Vladimir
Vladimir

Oh sorry, I forgot about the first part of this subject. Thanks

Anonymous
Anonymous

pure genius :)

Ron Magnuson
Ron Magnuson

This is very helpful. It is a good method to solve the myriad of word order choices that I continually confront. Well done.

George Culshaw
George Culshaw

What we have here is another discourse on learning ABOUT German. It is undoubtedly fascinating for German speakers and grammarians but learning ABOUT German has nothing to do with LEARNING German. None of this is will be the slightest use when the policeman pulls you over and you have to explain why you were speeding and why you haven’t got a pocketful of ID documentation.
I’ve spent six adult years being taught ABOUT German. I’ve consulted countless textbooks and each lesson deals with a separate principle of grammar and the next lesson moves on, There is no concept of establishing a foundation of knowledge and progressively building an edifice on it; each topical brick is picked up examined every which way and the cast aside for the next one. We end up with a pile of bricks, not even the simplest form of a structure.
Until modern language teachers accept that grammar is not language, that phrases are the building blocks into which words are placed, that drilling and practice in block assembly is all important, all we’ll get are more discourses like this that become less and less relevant to a German learner’s needs. I was taught French and Latin seventy years ago by traditional methods like drilling, rote learning, recitation, and I remember that stuff and can pull it out of the closet when I need it. You have to learn the spoken language first; the WHY comes afterwards.
If you doubt this, consider written Chinese. It has no words but speakers of myriad spoken languages having very little similarity to mandarin (like Japanese) can read it.
I know that this is at cross-purposes with the intention of “German Is Easy” and perhaps this is not the place to raise it. If so, I apologize, but it is a vital discussion that has to be had, so can we open a forum within GiE to do it?
Good Luck
George Culshaw

Grateful Reader
Grateful Reader

“consider written Chinese… Japanese) can read it.”

Only in the sense, in which an English native speaker can “read” French. Yeah, similar words here and there, sometimes one can guess what it’s all about, and that’s that.

alexviajero
alexviajero

George, your comments are interesting and you definitely have your views fixed, but language teachers fine-tune and hone and rework methodologies for teaching foreign languages that work best with the most students continuously. Some students really do find rote memorization of phrases to be the best approach for them, but I think it is pretty well established that this pertains to relatively few people, and that that method has largely been discredited by almost all the important research on foreign language teaching methodological efficacy. You state matter-of-factly that learning “about” German “will [not] be the slightest use when the policeman pulls you over and you have to explain why you were speeding and why you haven’t got a pocketful of ID documentation.” Really? I wonder how much of this blog you have read? You need to read at least several or more of the articles here to get a sense of Emanuel’s approach (along with the comments) to see that all this information, sometimes in an article that focuses around just a single word, is extremely useful and helpful to many of us and has language learning implications far beyond the key word or theme of a particular essay. The idea is not just to learn German, but to think about learning German. That information “about German” does indeed create much of the “mortar” that connects the language “bricks” you seem to see piling up in a heap, as opposed to adding to a coherent foundation. I’m pretty sure most of us who keep coming back here could not disagree more, and learn early on that there is a logic and a refreshing sense of satisfaction to the writer’s musings (often very entertaining and funny) that in the end, at least for me, usually results in a little light bulb going on above my head. My general reaction to this approach has been that, “hey, today I’ve learned some useful German” or equally as good, “something useful ‘about’ German.” I hope you’ll spend some more time hopping around the blog and just maybe (or maybe not) you’ll come away with a different conclusion.

Jo
Jo

George, I agree that reading about German is no substitute for practising using the language: but I think you’re never going to get that practice reading a blog (unless it was written in German). Some of the advice I’ve gotten on practice is: watch a soap opera in the language; talk to native speakers; use resources designed for learners like easy-language novellas (with accompanying audio CD); write something every day. I really enjoy Emanuel’s blog, especially his humour and the “ah-ha!” feeling of understanding *why* German is the way it is or how a word is related to an English word, which reduces frustration from feeling like languages are just arbitrary – and arbitrarily different. And it helps to keep me motivated for my rote memorisation, which I also do.

Jo
Jo

Just re-reading your comment, George, I agree from my own experience that learning phrases is key. It does seem to be a kind of “natural” way for humans to learn language, as we’re great at matching patterns. And in fact the German is Easy blog provides a lot of actual usage of words in phrases – see the “Word of the Day” section (some of which I’ve put on flash cards to help me remember the word and its usage together).*

But as an adult second-language learner, I know I need *some* theoretical underpinnings – and I think here Emanuel is providing a much more simple-but-comprehensive, logical and natural theory underpinning grammar than what is usually given.

And finally, personally I am actually interested in the grammar and etymology for its own sake, too. For me that is a part of learning another language, but I respect that is not of interest to everyone.

*There you go, Emanuel, if you’re ever looking for a spin-off from the blog, maybe you could sell phrase-based flash cards. Ooh, and I’d totally buy an easy-reader book with groan-worthy jokes in it. :)

Xu
Xu

Wow. You couldn’t be more wrong. This blog is extremely helpful for German learners. Just read the other reviews and you’ll see what I mean…

I see you are bitter about grammar. I think you are missing the point. Grammar (esp the way this blog is structured) is supposed to be a roadmap, a shortcut for language learning. We are not kids anymore: even though we wish we could just learn by immersing ourselves in the native speakers, it really doesn’t work efficiently enough for adult learners.

With regard to Chinese and Japanese, as a fluent speaker of both, I can tell you that they really don’t understand each other beyond some of the most basic words (if a Chinese person wanted toilet paper in Japan and wrote it down, the Japanese will think the Chinese wanted a letter…). Also, I’m not sure what you are trying to prove by saying the wiring system of Chinese resembles that of other languages…

(I’m shocked to see such an off the point negative comment on this wonderful site. )

Duncan

Brilliant post, once again! Thanks!!

Shouldn’t these example sentences have their order changed though?

“Ich war müde im Büro.
Ich war im Büro müde.

I was at the office, all tired.
I was tired at the office.”

Isn’t the first English translation linked to the second German example? And the second English representative of the first German example??

Duncan

Hold up! I was thinking about the English sentences with German emphasis hahaha. I didn’t realise I had switched so thoroughly into German analysis mode. The examples were totally correct! >.>

I’ll attempt to redeem my non-existent reputation by helping you with one of the typos:
The delicious sounding beer near the start of the article should read “reminds me of lemon”. Something or someone has to receive the reminding.
Alternatively, “is reminiscent of lemon” works fine by itself. Most naturally though I expect it would have “a citrus aftertaste”.

Ashish Vinayak
Ashish Vinayak

This has been super helpful, and an interesting read. I look forward to more. I like some logic of this sort to word order in German. Although it has confused the shit out of me I think this one post has been more helpful to me, than 1.5 years of German learning. Not exaggerating.

jag041
jag041

Hey Emmanuel,
In letzter Zeit habe ich ein deutsches Buch gelesen, in dem es häufig “als ist der…” statt “als der… ist” geht, und das finde ich ein bisschen verwirrend.
Was ist eine akkurate Übersetzung dafür? (auf Englisch auf jeden Fall)
Das Buch ist eigentlich schon eine Übersetzung von englischen Vorträgen, die von einem amerikanischen Komponist ausgeführt werden, aber da ich Deutsch lerne, lese ich den deutschen Text.
Manchmal schreiben sie auch “ich aber bin Komponist” oder so… Steht Wörter manchmal zwischen dem Verb und dem Subjekt so? Oder ist das nur sehr umgangssprachlich? Das ist noch was neues für mich.

Vielen Dank wieder im Voraus!

Jo
Jo

Thanks, Emanuel, this is another great post! The word order makes sooo much more sense now!
Oh and by the way while you’re fixing typos, “I bought a bred” should be either “I bought bread” or “I bought a loaf of bread”…
…which I’m sure you know, it’s the kind of mistake one makes when tired. :) Actually I’m heartened to know those little differences like “ein Brot” vs “bread” sometimes trip up even really fluent speakers like you – I’m one of those people who is afraid to speak at all until I can do it perfectly, but I can see now that thinking like that would mean I’d never speak German at all…

sam
sam

I love your blog. It is a cavern of wonderous space-unicorn wisdom.
One thing-the infix in “de-freaking-nitely”I dunno why but defi-freaking-nitely feels better (like abso-fucking-lutely). Not to be a pedant- your English is sublime and replete with expert whimsy- the infix thing just struck me as curious.
Thank you for the word order intuition bomb. Much needed!

Brightstar
Brightstar

I REALLY appreciate your comparison of German sentences with their English version and pointing out the differences in their construction. It no only enlightens me on the new German concept but it also helps me understand what it is behind the English construction that I hadn’t questioned before.

For me, awareness of the differences helps me during the storage and retrieval process.

Thank you for your dedication and excellent blog. Looking forward to having access to the compilation of your work.

Brightstar

Wayne
Wayne

Hello,

I also really enjoy your blog. This blog is by far the most informative, insightful, and fun to read blog out there! Great job on making learning German extra fun!! I’d like to say that this is my favorite blog from your site, but I’d be lying because I do love them all. :-)

I have, however, a question regarding the unicorn wisdom & its reverse counterpart. I love these two guidelines, but I still wonder how they explain the non-side sentence structure, e.g. Ich gehe in den Park. Is there any explanation or insight that you could share on this topic?

shero1234eg@yahoo.com

After the tekamolo rule and its modifications, you said “there’s no rules to order words in a sentence ”! Do you mean “No valid rule”,or“No optimal rule ”?

Andy Law
Andy Law

Hilarious. I’m enjoying learning German word order. Never thought I’d say that.

Fabrice Ward
Fabrice Ward

Super, that’s fun. I’m currently studying B1.2 and trying to get my head around the very strange german sentence structure. I’ve been randomly organising sentences according to what sounded best to me, but haven’t had any kind of rule. I came across TEKAMOLO and so thought to find out about it as something potentially useful, and a Google search got me to this article. I’m delighted to hear that there are no rules though, as having them seems like a surefire way to take all the fun away. English and French are languages that you can play with and be creative, so I’m glad to hear that German is too. In England we advise to “learn the rules first and then break them”, so there’s definitely a place for ideas like TEKAMOLO. It’s just nice to know that they’re not set in stone. Thanks for the unicorn approach. It definitely makes sense to me.

Michael_Classical
Michael_Classical

Hi Emmanuel,

You lay down the general principle: “the more interesting, relevant and defining something is, the later it comes.”

So how does this apply to following?

(1) Schön ist es hier.
(2) Hier ist es schön.

Apparently (1) emphasizes more the pleasantness of the place, whereas (2) emphasizes the location of the place (as opposed to elsewhere). Based on your article, I thought it would be the converse?

Thanks :)

tbhatti
tbhatti

Emmanuel, I got super confused with the training in the park example because I thought that the (second/other) verb always came at the end and then we work backwards to put the most important element of the sentence before the verb. But this example is obviously an exception? Otherwise, I found it super useful to understand it based on how you explained the head last concept. Thanks!!

Hans
Hans

Hallo Emmanuel,
ich habe einige Fragen von meine Übungen, die ich noch nicht klar finde. Es sind die Lösungen :
1. Sie hat gestern ihre Tasche im Zug vergessen.
2. Er brachte mir den geliehenen Mantel ins Hotel.
3. Der Gast überreichte der Dame des Hauses einen Blumenstrauß an der Wohnungstür.
4. Die junge Frau gab ihrem Mann zum Abschied einen Kuss an der Autotür.
5. Die Versammelten verurteilen einstimmig den Einmarsch fremder Truppen in ein ünabhängiges Land.
6. Du hast mir diese Geschichte schon gestern in der Mensa erzählt.
Warum ist die Position von ‘Lokal’ immer am Ende und nach dem Akkusativ-Objekt?