German Prepositions Explained – “aus” (part 2)

Hello everyone,

and welcome back to a new episode of the series German Prepositions Explained – the series that makes prepositions suck 30% less.
And today it’s time for the second part of our look at the trials and tribulations of

aus

In part one, we learned that the core theme of aus and is outward and that that can be used to express the idea of leaving, exiting, but also for the idea of emerging and origin.
If you haven’t read part one, or you want to review it again, you can find it here:

German Prepositions Explained – “aus” (Part I)

We also started to talk about aus as a prefix and saw how it bends and twists the two core ideas.
Today, we’ll continue with the prefix, because it actually has a couple of themes that are kind of new… or at least they might seem that way.
So are you ready to jump in?
Then let’s go.

Two Themes of “aus”-verbs

The first “side-theme” of the prefix aus is something like finishing or completely. And a great way to see how that ties in with the core of aus is the verb austrinken

  • Ich trinke mein Bier aus.
  • I finished (drink up) my beer.

Finishing your beer means getting it all “out”. And we can kind of find that in other verbs in that group.

  • Der See trocknet aus.
  • The lake dries up.
  • Morgen kann ich ausschlafen.
  • Tomorrow, I can sleep in.
  • Der Chef beutet seine Mitarbeiter aus.
  • The boss exploits his employees.
    (literally: “loots out”)
  • Lass mich bitte ausreden.
  • Please let me finish (my sentence).
  • Ich bin total ausgepowert.
  • I’m completely exhausted.

In all these, we get something “out” completely.
But if we really think about it, finishing and ending are inherently connected to the notion of leaving.When we finish a project, we also “leave” the project. When we leave the bar, then our time there ends.
Or take this example with one of the meanings of ausgehen.

  • Wie geht die Serie aus?
  • How does the series end?

Actually, just think of the phrase “The series goes out with a bang.”… that’s the perfect showcase for how leaving and ending overlap.

And that also brings us to the second theme I want to talk about.
And I’m sure many of you are already kind of familiar with it, because even though there are not that many verbs with it, it is absolutely essential for daily life that it’s hard to not see.
I’m talking of course about the idea of inactive, deactivated or simply off.

  • Das Licht ist aus.
  • The light is off.

Well… technically aus sein isn’t actually a prefix verb but rather a verb and an adverb , but who cares. It’s really just a spelling convention, after all.

So, aus is THE German word for off in the sense of inactive, and at least in my opinion, it is connected to what we already had.

You see, if I leave a bar, for example, if I go outside, I’m no longer present there. Except in the mind of the ladies, of course, because I’m an absolute alpha-chad.
But yeah, I’m not in the bar anymore. Me being in the bar has ended.
And when the barkeeper later turns off the light… the light is not in the bar anymore. It “left” the space. It has ended.
The notion of leaving and the notion of off, inactive have in common the idea of not being “there”, not being present.
If you’re now like “Nah… that’s too twisted for me.” that’s totally fine, you can just ignore it then and think of off as an independent idea.
Anyways… here are some examples.

  • Kannst du deine Musik ausmachen?
  • Can you turn off your music?
  • “Warum ist das Projekt noch nicht fertig?”
    “Mein Computer geht immer aus, wenn ich arbeiten will.”
  • “Why isn’t the project finished yet?”
    “My computer turns off whenever I want to work.”
  • “Ich habe den ganzen Tag versucht, dich anzurufen.”
    “Ja, sorry… ich hatte mein Handy aus.”
  • “I tried calling you all day.”
    “Yeah, sorry… I had my phone (turned) off.”

And while there are a few more verbs carrying this idea (like ausschalten for example), ausmachen and ausgehen and also aus sein are really all you’ll need in daily life.

All right.
So now we have a pretty complete overview over what aus can do as a prefix. And I hope you could see how the core theme of “outward” with its two aspects of leaving and emerging is wafting through all the various aus-verbs, even though it gets twisted and bent.

Usually in this series, we’d now take a look at these fixed combinations of verbs with a preposition. Like ankommen auf or Angst haben vor.

But for aus, there really isn’t anything to explore.
There are a few of these fixed combinations, like bestehen aus (consist of) or ableiten aus (to derive from) but those are perfectly in line with the idea of origin that we already established for the preposition.

So there’s not much to analyze here.

But there is another area, that definitely could use some clearing up and that’s all the direct relatives of aus.

aus, außen, draußen, außer and so on

When it comes to expressing spatial information, German is a bit OCD, in that it really likes to be precise.
That’s why there are often several words where English uses one and the same and the aus-crew is a great example for that.

So let’s go over those real quick, in no particular order.

raus

We already talked about that in part one, but no harm in repeating this one because it’s so so important. raus essentially is out as a direction of an action.
So it is essentially an answer to the question “where to?“.
There are loads of prefix verbs with raus like rausgehen or rauskommen and it also works by itself.

  • “Wo gehst du hin?”
    Raus.
  • “Where are you going?”
    Outside.

Some learners sometimes use raus as a preposition and say something like “raus dem Haus”. If you catch yourself doing that… that’s wrong :).
Because raus is NOT a preposition. So there you need aus.
Cool.
Next one!

draußen

Draußen is the “steady” version of raus, so while raus answers the question “where to?”, draußen answers the question “where?”

  • “Wo bist du?”
    Draußen.
  • “Where are you?”
    Outside.
  • Draußen ist es kalt.
  • Outside, it’s cold.

Like raus, draußen is NOT a preposition, so you can not say something like “draußen dem Haus” for “outside of the house“.
People would probably say vor dem Haus here, which means in front of the house. But technically, the closest word is the next one on our list… außerhalb.

außerhalb

Außerhalb means outside of and it’s one of the view prepositions in German where you actually need Genitive.

  • Rauchen ist nur außerhalb des Stadions erlaubt.
  • Smoking is only allowed outside of the stadium.
  • Hallo, Sie rufen leider außerhalb der Öffnungszeiten an.
  • Hello, You’re calling outside of the business hours.

As you can see, außerhalb is not limited to locations.
And it can even be used as a location by itself, in the phrase von außerhalb, which essentially means “not from here/there”.

  • Ich komme von außerhalb.
  • I’m not from here.

This sounds a bit formal though, and it’s hard to use idiomatically, so I’d put that one on the pile of passive vocabulary.

außen

außen is an adverb again, so it can answer the question “where?” by itself. But while draußen is about the outside as a space, außen is more about the outside as … well… a side. On the outside is a pretty good match, actually.
It can technically stand on its own, but in practice, it is actually very often combined with a von or nach or im.

  • Von außen sieht das Restaurant aus, wie ein Schuppen.
  • From the outside/on the outside the restaurant looks like a shack.
  • Deine Gedanken manifestieren sich im Außen.
  • Your thoughts manifest on the outside.
    (One of the standard phrases spiritual influencers use.)
  • Der Spieler rennt nach außen.
  • The player runs outside.
    (He is still in bounds here, außen refers to the outer part of the field here, not the outside of it.)
  • Die Partei ist rechts außen im politischen Spektrum.
  • The party is on the far right in the political spectrum.

As you can see, it’s used in quite the range of contexts. But there’s one context where it doesn’t really fit. Which brings us to the next word.

äußerlich

äußerlich also translates to on the outside but its main use case is the context the appearance of someone, where außen would sound a bit strange.

  • Äußerlich ist Maria ruhig, aber innerlich kocht sie vor Wut.
  • On the outside, Maria is calm, but inside, she is boiling with rage.
  • Thomas achtet nur auf das Äußerliche.
  • Thomas only cares about the looks.

außer

Last but not least, we have außer, which is the German word for except, but (and besides, in certain contexts).

  • Einhörner essen alles, außer Sushi.
  • Unicorns eat everything except Sushi.
  • Thomas räumt nie auf, außer wenn ein Date kommt.
  • Thomas never cleans, except when a date is coming over.

I’ve actually talked about außer in more detail in a separate article, so I’ll leave the link below if you want to know more.

And we’re almost done but let’s give an honorable mention to the two verbs äußern and veräußern.
Äußern is basically a slightly formal sounding verb for the idea of bringing your thoughts to the outside and depending on context, it can be to make a statement or to comment or simply to express.

  • Maria hat im Meeting Kritik an ihrer Chefin geäußert.
  • Maria voiced/expressed criticism about her boss at the meeting.
  • Die Eichhörnchen äußern sich nicht zu den Verhandlungen.
  • The squirrels are not making statements about the negotiations.
    (äußern needs a direct object, that’s why the sich is here)

And veräußern is a formal term for…. selling. But it really only works for huge sales, like selling land or selling the assets of a business. It absolutely DOESN’T work for selling normal retail goods.

And I think that’s it :).
Yeaaay!
This was our look at aus, its use as a prefix and its various relatives. The main challenge are definitely the prefix verbs which are not always obvious, but I hope you got a good impression of how the core theme of outward gets twisted and bent to create the wimmelpicture of meanings that we see in a dictionary.

As usual, if you want to check how much you remember just take the little quiz I have prepared for you.
And if you have any questions are suggestions about aus, you know what to do… just leave me a comment :).
I hope you liked it, have a great week and I’ll see you next time!

 

 

further reading:

Word of the Day – “außer”

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Annanag
Annanag
7 days ago

Thank you Emanuel and donors for helping me to learn german!! Ich lerne viel “aus” jedem Artikel d:

Anonymous
Anonymous
9 days ago

test

pmccann
pmccann
11 days ago

Should have mentioned this in my prior comment, but for what it’s worth, ‘German Prepositions Explained – “auf” (Part I)’ should of course read ‘German Prepositions Explained – “aus” (Part I)’

Arpan
Arpan
12 days ago

This is amazing. Thank you so much for your help in providing the course for free. :)

Bissell
Bissell
12 days ago

Heute habe ich das Wort “eigentlich” studiert. Dieser Satz: “Eigentlich trinke ich kein Bier, aber Heute ist eine Ausnahme.” Und, Heute hast du das Thema ‘aus’.
Perfekt!

Last edited 12 days ago by Bissell
Bissell
Bissell
12 days ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Ja, und auch Eigentlich! Ich liebe meine YDG… (mein, meine? Is there a ‘generic’ gender for objects like a website, company, etc?)

Gaurav
Gaurav
13 days ago

Thank you for helping me by providing a free subscription of 12 months.

Alison
Alison
14 days ago

What about ‘ausmachen’ in the sense of being unable to see something properly. Ich kann das Haus nicht ausmachen, es ist zu dunkel. How might aus fit in here?

coleussanctus
coleussanctus
14 days ago
Reply to  Alison

The thing figuratively leaves/emerges from the background and jumps out toward your eyes. Like if you picture a boat on the water at night. “I could just barely make out the outline of the ship against the horizon.” At least that’s how I explain it to myself.

Yvonne
Yvonne
14 days ago

I’m so disappointed that “ausschlafen” is simply sleeping in. When my grandmother said it to me, I interpreted it as having slept to the end—like, sleeping as much as you needed. I thought it was so cool that German had a word for that. How sad to know that I mistranslated it all those years.

Yvonne
Yvonne
13 days ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Hmm. I guess they are different to me. ‘Sleeping in,’ to me, just meant sleeping beyond your usual time to wake. I guess the German “ausschlafen” gives me more the feeling of sleeping to completion.

Dingsda
Dingsda
15 days ago

Herr Emanuel, Ich danke Ihnen vielmals für die finanzielle Unterstützung!

LCantoni
15 days ago

Great article as always! With respect to the “Das Licht ist aus” example, in English we do use “out” for “off,” as in “the light is out” or “turn out the light.” Or, if you’re Othello in the last act, “Put out the light, and then put out the light.” ;)

pmccann
pmccann
11 days ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Yep: first turn off the light, and then “turn off her light” (…und sie dann zu töten).

((Und damit verhindern, dass sie andere Männer betrügt.))

Umm, yeah, OK, sounds legit…

pmccann
pmccann
10 days ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

Aah, no, sorry: “turn off *her* light” was just my explication of the original text, which really does have “put out the light” both times.

Blame Shakespeare :-)

Elsa
Elsa
15 days ago

Hello,
You’re virtually austypoed. Or I’m total ausgepowert… But I only found one:

“Except in the of the ladies” (in the mind? imagination? of the ladies)

Thanks for clearing up the mess with the derived words!
Bis bald!

Elsa
Elsa
15 days ago
Reply to  Elsa

Oh, and are außer and außerhalb interchangeable or is there some sort of subtle difference?

berlingrabers
berlingrabers
15 days ago

I’ll leave most of the typos to others, but here’s something to edit just to avoid confusion:

  • “Ich habe den ganzen Tag versucht, dich anzurufen.”
  • “Ja, sorry… ich hatte mein Handy aus.”
  • “I tried calling you all day.”
  • “Yeah, sorry… I had my phone (turned) off the entire day.”

Just so nobody is trying to figure out where “the entire day” is in the German answer.

Jake
Jake
16 days ago

Something that has helped me is to remember that “He goes out(side)” can be “Er geht raus” or “Er geht nach draußen”, but not “Er geht draußen”.

Paolo
Paolo
16 days ago

Should one consider “äußern/Äußerung” the German cousin of “to utter/utterance”? They seem etymologically related, maybe also in usage.
(Maybe also “äußerst” and “utterly”.)

Last edited 16 days ago by vanberghem
berlingrabers
berlingrabers
15 days ago
Reply to  German-is-easy

I find to utter and definitely utterance fairly formal/technical too – utter as an adjective or utterly maybe less so, but mostly because there are some expressions where it’s sort of standard:

  • When Arnold entered the kindergarten, it was utter chaos.

But to utter also doesn’t feel like express like äußern does… I think mainly it’s less abstract. It’s focused on the act (and maybe the sound?) of speaking:

  • Thomas uttered a curse.

To me, this really just means that a curse came out of his mouth. For that reason, to say that someone “uttered criticism” (to use one of the examples from the post) would be sort of odd. Not sure if that makes sense…

Vorlaufer
Vorlaufer
17 days ago

Austrinken means to drink a beverage completely, doesn’t it? But the first question in the quiz was marked incorrect. Did I misread it?